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Title: A review of the valorization and management of industrial spent catalyst waste in the context of sustainable practice: The case of the State of Kuwait in parallel to European industry
Authors: Al-Salem, Sultan Majed 
Constantinou, Achilleas 
Leeke, Gary Anthony 
Hafeez, Sanaa 
Safdar, Tayeba 
Karam, Hajar Jawad 
Al-Qassimi, Masumah 
Al-Dhafeeri, Ayyad Toman 
Manos, George 
Arena, Umberto 
Major Field of Science: Natural Sciences
Field Category: Chemical Sciences
Keywords: Spent catalysts;Industrial waste;Hydrometallurgical treatment;Extraction;Waste management
Issue Date: Nov-2019
Source: Waste Management & Research: The Journal for a Sustainable Circular Economy, 2019, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1127–1141
Volume: 37
Issue: 11
Start page: 1127
End page: 1141
Journal: Waste Management & Research: The Journal for a Sustainable Circular Economy 
Abstract: Industrial solid waste management encompasses a vital part of developed and developing countries strategies alike. It manages waste generated from vital industries and governs the hazardous waste generated as a major component of integrated waste management strategies. This article reviews the practices that govern the management approaches utilized in the developed world for industrial spent catalysts. It critically assesses the current situation of waste management within the developing world region focusing on the industrial waste component, in a novel attempt to crucially develop a strategy for a way forward based on best practices and future directions with major European industries. The review also draws parallels with European countries to compare their practices with those of the State of Kuwait, which rely solely on landfilling for the management of its industrial waste. Spent catalysts recovery methods are discussed at length covering conventional methods of valuable metals and chemicals recovery (e.g., hydrometallurgical, solid–liquid and liquid–liquid extraction) as well as biological recovery methods. A major gap exists within regulations that govern the practice of managing industrial waste in Kuwait, where it is essential to start regulating industries that generate spent catalysts in-view of encouraging the establishment of valorization industries for metal and chemical recovery. This will also create a sustainable practice within state borders, and can reduce the environmental impact of landfilling such waste in Kuwait.
ISSN: 10963669
DOI: 10.1177/0734242X19876689
Rights: © The Author(s)
Type: Article
Affiliation : Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research 
London South Bank University 
University College London 
University of Birmingham 
University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli” 
Appears in Collections:Άρθρα/Articles

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