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Title: Spatial variability of fine and coarse particle composition and sources in Cyprus
Authors: Achilleos, Souzana 
Wolfson, Jack M. 
Ferguson, Stephen 
Kang, Choongmin 
Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G. 
Hadjicharalambous, Marios 
Achilleos, Constantia 
Christodoulou, Andri 
Nisantzi, Argyro 
Papoutsa, Christiana 
Themistocleous, Kyriacos 
Athanasatos, Spyros 
Perdikou, Paraskevi N. 
Koutrakis, Petros 
Major Field of Science: Natural Sciences
Field Category: Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Keywords: Coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5);Composition;Fine particulate matter (PM2.5);Mediterranean;Source apportionment
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2016
Source: Atmospheric Research, 2016, vol. 169, pp. 255-270
Volume: 169
Start page: 255
End page: 270
Journal: Atmospheric Research 
Abstract: Southern and Eastern European countries exceed WHO and EU air quality standards very often, and are influenced by both local and external sources from Europe, Asia and Africa. However, there are limited data on particle composition and source profiles. We collected PM2.5 and PM10 samples (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 and 10μm, respectively) in four cities in Cyprus using Harvard Impactors. Measurements were conducted between January 2012 and January 2013. We analyzed these samples for mass concentration and chemical composition, and conducted a source apportionment analysis using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF).All sites complied with PM2.5 and PM10 WHO daily standards for most of the days. As in other Eastern European countries, we found higher sulfate contribution and less organic carbon than in the Western and central Europe. For PM2.5, seven source types were identified including regional sulfur, traffic emissions, biomass, re-suspended soil, oil combustion, road dust, and sea salt. In all four sites, regional sulfur was the predominant source (>30%). High inter-site correlations were observed for both PM2.5 component concentrations and source contributions, may be because a large fraction of PM2.5 is transported. Finally, for PM10-2.5 (coarse particles with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10μm) three sources were identified, which include road dust, soil, and sea salt. Significant inter-site correlations were also observed for coarse particles. All dust storm samples, except one, had PM levels below the daily standard. However, mineral dust, defined as the total mass of crustal metal oxides, increased up to ten times during the dust events.
ISSN: 01698095
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.10.005
Rights: © Elsevier
Type: Article
Affiliation : Harvard University 
Cyprus University of Technology 
Cyprus Meteorological Service 
Frederick University 
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