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Title: Mental Health Status of Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Outbreak: An International Study
Authors: Nicolaou, Christiana 
Menikou, Joanna 
Lamnisos, Demetris 
Lubenko, Jelena 
Presti, Giovambattista 
Squatrito, Valeria 
Constantinou, Marios 
Papacostas, Savvas S. 
Aydln, Gokcen 
Chong, Yuen Yu 
Chien, Wai Tong 
Cheng, Ho Yu 
Ruiz, Francisco J. 
Segura-Vargas, Miguel A. 
Garcia-Martin, Maria B. 
Obando-Posada, Diana P. 
Vasiliou, Vasilis S. 
McHugh, Louise 
Höfer, Stefan 
Baban, Adriana 
Neto, David Dias 
Nunes da Silva, Ana 
Monestès, Jean-Louis 
Alvarez-Galvez, Javier 
Paez-Blarrina, Marisa 
Montesinos, Francisco 
Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles 
Ori, Dorottya 
Kleszcz, Bartosz 
Lappalainen, Raimo 
Ivanović, Iva 
Gosar, David 
Dionne, Frederick 
Merwin, Rhonda M. 
Kassianos, Angelos P. 
Karekla, Maria 
Gloster, Andrew T. 
Major Field of Science: Medical and Health Sciences
Field Category: Health Sciences
Keywords: Healthcare workers;COVID-19;Pandemic;Mental health;Psychological problems
Issue Date: 1-Sep-2021
Source: European Journal of Psychology Open, vol. 80, no. 1-2, pp. 62–76
Volume: 80
Issue: 1-2
Start page: 62
End page: 76
Journal: European Journal of Psychology Open 
Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a massive health crisis that has exerted enormous physical and psychological pressure. Mental healthcare for healthcare workers (HCWs) should receive serious consideration. This study served to determine the mental-health outcomes of 1,556 HCWs from 45 countries who participated in the COVID-19 IMPACT project, and to examine the predictors of the outcomes during the first pandemic wave. Methods: Outcomes assessed were self-reported perceived stress, depression symptom, and sleep changes. The predictors examined included sociodemographic factors and perceived social support. Results: The results demonstrated that half of the HCWs had moderate levels of perceived stress and symptoms of depression. Half of the HCWs (n = 800, 51.4%) had similar sleeping patterns since the pandemic started, and one in four slept more or slept less. HCWs reported less perceived stress and depression symptoms and higher levels of perceived social support than the general population who participated in the same project. Predictors associated with higher perceived stress and symptoms of depression among HCWs included female sex, not having children, living with parents, lower educational level, and lower social support. Discussion: The need for establishing ways to mitigate mental-health risks and adjusting psychological interventions and support for HCWs seems to be significant as the pandemic continues.
ISSN: 2673-8627
DOI: 10.1024/2673-8627/a000010
Rights: © The Author(s) Distributed as a Hogrefe OpenMind article under the license CC BY 4.0
Type: Article
Affiliation : Cyprus University of Technology 
European University Cyprus 
Riga Stradins University 
Kore University of Enna 
University of Nicosia 
Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics 
Hasan Kalyoncu University 
The Chinese University of Hong Kong 
Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz 
University de La Sabana 
University College Cork 
University College Dublin 
Innsbruck Medical University 
Babeş-Bolyai University 
Instituto Universitário 
University of Lisbon 
University Grenoble Alpes 
University of Cádiz 
Instituto ACT 
European University of Madrid 
University of Zaragoza 
Heim Pal National Pediatric Institute 
University of Jyväskylä 
Clinical Center of Montenegro 
Ljubljana University Medical Centre 
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières 
Duke University 
University College London 
University of Cyprus 
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