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Title: Enhanced nZEB concept incorporating a sustainable Grid Support Scheme
Authors: Kotarela, Faidra 
Kyritsis, Anastasios Ch 
Papanikolaou, Nick P. 
Kalogirou, Soteris A. 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Field Category: Environmental Engineering
Keywords: nZEB;Photovoltaics;Energy storage units;Energy transactions;Life cycle cost assessment;Ancillary services
Issue Date: May-2021
Source: Renewable Energy, 2021, vol. 169, pp. 714-725
Volume: 169
Start page: 714
End page: 725
Journal: Renewable Energy 
Abstract: The building sector in Europe represents a large amount of the total energy consumption. European Union policies urge energy management systems installation in buildings, to achieve the nZEB targets and mitigate the climate change. Except for renewable energy sources, the incorporation of energy storage units (ESUs) is of major importance for building energy management, in order to increase self-consumption levels. The present work contributes to the mass installation of ESUs in building sector, as a tool to provide flexibility in the distributed production of energy. This concept is an enhanced version of nZEBs that is able to compete in the Electricity Market, and to contribute to the reliability and flexibility of the electricity grid as an alternative to centralized ESUs investments. In this context, the present work proposes a new type of grid ancillary services for building sector and a novel Grid Support Scheme (GSS) that considers both the energy fluctuations of the available energy in the ESU as well as the energy transactions with the grid. The proposed GSS model concludes to a pricing policy relying on the Value of Lost Load (VoLL), in order that the proposed grid support investment becomes sustainable. The validation of the GSS is performed by means of Life Cycle Cost Assessment.
ISSN: 09601481
DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2021.01.050
Rights: © Elsevier
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Type: Article
Affiliation : Democritus University of Thrace 
Ionian University 
Cyprus University of Technology 
Cyprus Academy of Science, Letters, and Arts 
Appears in Collections:Άρθρα/Articles

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