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Title: Temporal analysis reveals a key role for VTE5 in vitamin E biosynthesis in olive fruit during on-tree development
Authors: Georgiadou, Egli C. 
Ntourou, Thessaloniki 
Goulas, Vlasios 
Manganaris, George A. 
Kalaitzis, Panagiotis 
Fotopoulos, Vasileios 
Major Field of Science: Agricultural Sciences
Field Category: Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries
Keywords: Olea europaea;Developmental stages;Gene expression;Phytol kinase;Tocochromanols;Tocopherols;Tocotrienols
Issue Date: 21-Oct-2015
Source: Frontiers in Plant Science, 2015, vol. 6, no. 871
Volume: 6
Issue: 871
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00871
Journal: Frontiers in Plant Science 
Abstract: The aim of this work was to generate a high resolution temporal mapping of the biosynthetic pathway of vitamin E in olive fruit (Olea europaea cv. “Koroneiki”) during 17 successive on-tree developmental stages. Fruit material was collected from the middle of June until the end of January, corresponding to 6–38 weeks after flowering (WAF). Results revealed a variable gene regulation pattern among 6–38 WAF studied and more pronounced levels of differential regulation of gene expression for the first and intermediate genes in the biosynthetic pathway (VTE5, geranylgeranyl reductase, HPPD, VTE2, HGGT and VTE3) compared with the downstream components of the pathway (VTE1 and VTE4). Notably, expression of HGGT and VTE2 genes were significantly suppressed throughout the developmental stages examined. Metabolite analysis indicated that the first and intermediate stages of development (6–22 WAF) have higher concentrations of tocochromanols compared with the last on-tree stages (starting from 24 WAF onwards). The concentration of α-tocopherol (16.15 ± 0.60−32.45 ± 0.54 mg/100 g F.W.) were substantially greater (up to 100-fold) than those of β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (0.13 ± 0.01−0.25 ± 0.03 mg/100 g F.W., 0.13 ± 0.01−0.33 ± 0.04 mg/100 g F.W., 0.14 ± 0.01−0.28 ± 0.01 mg/100 g F.W., respectively). In regard with tocotrienol content, only γ-tocotrienol was detected. Overall, olive fruits (cv. “Koroneiki”) exhibited higher concentrations of vitamin E until 22 WAF as compared with later WAF, concomitant with the expression profile of phytol kinase (VTE5), which could be used as a marker gene due to its importance in the biosynthesis of vitamin E. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the complete biosynthetic pathway of vitamin E in a fruit tree crop of great horticultural importance such as olive, linking molecular gene expression analysis with tocochromanol content.
ISSN: 1664462X
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00871
Rights: © 2015 Georgiadou, Ntourou, Goulas, Manganaris, Kalaitzis and Fotopoulos.
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States
Type: Article
Affiliation : Cyprus University of Technology 
Mediterranean Agronomic Institute Chania 
Appears in Collections:Άρθρα/Articles

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