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Title: Spectral characteristics and thermal evolution of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers fabricated with a near-IR radiation femtosecond laser using point-by-point inscription
Authors: Kalli, Kyriacos 
Allsop, Thomas P. 
Zhou, Kaiming 
Smith, Graham N. 
Komodromos, Michael 
Petrović, Jovana S. 
Webb, David 
Bennion, Ian 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Field Category: Electrical Engineering - Electronic Engineering - Information Engineering
Keywords: Crystal whiskers;Photonic crystals;Photonic crystals;Fibers
Issue Date: Sep-2011
Source: Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 2011, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2105-2114
Volume: 28
Issue: 9
Start page: 2105
End page: 2114
Journal: Journal of the Optical Society of America B 
Abstract: The spectral properties of long-period gratings (LPGs) fabricated in photonic crystal fibers using femtosecond laser pulses by the point-by-point technique, without oil-immersion of the fiber, are investigated in detail. Postfabrication spectral monitoring at room temperature showed significant long-term instability of the gratings and stable spectra only after 600 h. The stabilized spectral properties of the gratings improved with increasing annealing temperature. The observed changes in resonant wavelength, optical strength, and grating birefringence were correlated to the laser inscription energy and were further used to study the mechanism of femtosecond inscription. Furthermore, the femtosecond-laser inscribed LPGs were compared to electric-arc fabricated LPGs. Comparison of experimental results with theoretical models of LPGs and laser propagation during inscription indicate that the major processes responsible for the index change are permanent compaction and thermally induced strain, the latter can be significantly changed through annealing.
ISSN: 1520-8540
DOI: 10.1364/JOSAB.28.002105
Rights: © Optical Society of America.
Type: Article
Affiliation : Aston University 
Cyprus University of Technology 
Frederick University 
Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences 
Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy 
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