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Title: The Essentials of Marine Biotechnology
Authors: Rotter, Ana 
Barbier, Michèle 
Bertoni, Francesco 
Bones, Atle M. 
Cancela, M. Leonor 
Carlsson, Jens 
Carvalho, Maria F. 
Cegłowska, Marta 
Chirivella-Martorell, Jerónimo 
Dalay, Meltem Conk 
Cueto, Mercedes 
Dailianis, Thanos 
Deniz, Irem 
Díaz-Marrero, Ana R. 
Drakulovic, Dragana 
Dubnika, Arita 
Edwards, Christine 
Einarsson, Hjörleifur 
Erdoğan, Ayşegül 
Eroldoğan, Orhan Tufan 
Ezra, David 
Fazi, Stefano 
FitzGerald, Richard J. 
Gargan, Laura M. 
Gaudêncio, Susana P. 
Gligora Udovič, Marija 
Ivošević DeNardis, Nadica 
Jónsdóttir, Rósa 
Kataržytė, Marija 
Klun, Katja 
Kotta, Jonne 
Ktari, Leila 
Ljubešić, Zrinka 
Lukić Bilela, Lada 
Mandalakis, Manolis 
Massa-Gallucci, Alexia 
Matijošytė, Inga 
Mazur-Marzec, Hanna 
Mehiri, Mohamed 
Nielsen, Søren Laurentius 
Novoveská, Lucie 
Overlingė, Donata 
Perale, Giuseppe 
Ramasamy, Praveen 
Rebours, Céline 
Reinsch, Thorsten 
Reyes, Fernando 
Rinkevich, Baruch 
Robbens, Johan 
Röttinger, Eric 
Rudovica, Vita 
Sabotič, Jerica 
Safarik, Ivo 
Talve, Siret 
Tasdemir, Deniz 
Schneider, Xenia Theodotou 
Thomas, Olivier P. 
Toruńska-Sitarz, Anna 
Varese, Giovanna Cristina 
Vasquez Christodoulou, Marlen 
Major Field of Science: Natural Sciences
Field Category: Biological Sciences
Keywords: Bioprospecting;Blue growth;Ethics;Marine biodiversity;Marine bioeconomy;Marine natural products;Responsible research and innovation;Sustainability
Issue Date: 16-Mar-2021
Source: Frontiers in Marine Science, 2021, vol. 8, articl. no. 629629
Volume: 8
Journal: Frontiers in Marine Science 
Abstract: Coastal countries have traditionally relied on the existing marine resources (e.g., fishing, food, transport, recreation, and tourism) as well as tried to support new economic endeavors (ocean energy, desalination for water supply, and seabed mining). Modern societies and lifestyle resulted in an increased demand for dietary diversity, better health and well-being, new biomedicines, natural cosmeceuticals, environmental conservation, and sustainable energy sources. These societal needs stimulated the interest of researchers on the diverse and underexplored marine environments as promising and sustainable sources of biomolecules and biomass, and they are addressed by the emerging field of marine (blue) biotechnology. Blue biotechnology provides opportunities for a wide range of initiatives of commercial interest for the pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food, feed, agricultural, and related industries. This article synthesizes the essence, opportunities, responsibilities, and challenges encountered in marine biotechnology and outlines the attainment and valorization of directly derived or bio-inspired products from marine organisms. First, the concept of bioeconomy is introduced. Then, the diversity of marine bioresources including an overview of the most prominent marine organisms and their potential for biotechnological uses are described. This is followed by introducing methodologies for exploration of these resources and the main use case scenarios in energy, food and feed, agronomy, bioremediation and climate change, cosmeceuticals, bio-inspired materials, healthcare, and well-being sectors. The key aspects in the fields of legislation and funding are provided, with the emphasis on the importance of communication and stakeholder engagement at all levels of biotechnology development. Finally, vital overarching concepts, such as the quadruple helix and Responsible Research and Innovation principle are highlighted as important to follow within the marine biotechnology field. The authors of this review are collaborating under the European Commission-funded Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action Ocean4Biotech – European transdisciplinary networking platform for marine biotechnology and focus the study on the European state of affairs.
ISSN: 2296-7745
DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2021.629629
Rights: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
Type: Article
Affiliation : National Institute of Biology 
Università della Svizzera italiana 
Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland 
Norwegian University of Science and Technology 
University of Algarve 
University College Dublin 
University of Porto 
Polish Academy of Sciences 
Valencia Catholic University Saint Vincent Martyr 
Ege University 
Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiología 
Hellenic Centre for Marine Research 
Manisa Celal Bayar University 
Universidad de La Laguna 
University of Montenegro 
Riga Technical University 
Robert Gordon University 
University of Akureyri 
Cukurova University 
Agricultural Research Organization - Volcani Center 
CNR - National Research Council of Italy 
University of Limerick 
New University of Lisbon 
University of Zagreb 
Ruđer Boškoviċ Institute 
Matis ohf 
Klaipeda University 
University of Tartu 
University of Sarajevo 
AquaBioTech Group 
Vilnius University 
University of Gdansk 
Université Côte d’Azur 
Roskilde University 
Scottish Association for Marine Science 
Università della Svizzera italiana 
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology 
Industrie Biomediche Insubri SA 
Møreforsking Ålesund AS 
Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel 
Fundación MEDINA 
National Institute of Oceanography 
Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food 
University of Latvia 
Jožef Stefan Institute 
Ceske Budejovice 
Palacký University 
Ministry of Rural Affairs 
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research 
University of Kiel 
XPRO Consulting Limited 
National University of Ireland 
University of Torino 
Cyprus University of Technology 
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