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Title: Stomatal behavior following mid- or long-term exposure to high relative air humidity: A review
Authors: Fanourakis, Dimitrios 
Aliniaeifard, Sasan 
Sellin, Arne 
Giday, Habtamu 
Körner, Oliver 
Rezaei Nejad, Abdolhossein 
Delis, Costas 
Bouranis, Dimitris 
Koubouris, Georgios 
Kambourakis, Emmanouil 
Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos 
Tsaniklidis, Georgios 
Major Field of Science: Agricultural Sciences
Field Category: Other Agricultural Sciences
Keywords: Evaporative demand;Stomatal closing ability;Stomatal size;Transpiration;Water loss
Issue Date: 1-Aug-2020
Source: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 2020, vol. 153, pp. 92-105
Volume: 153
Start page: 92
End page: 105
Journal: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 
Abstract: High relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85%) is frequent in controlled environments, and not uncommon in nature. In this review, we examine the high RH effects on plants with a special focus on stomatal characters. All aspects of stomatal physiology are attenuated by elevated RH during leaf expansion (long-term) in C3 species. These include impaired opening and closing response, as well as weak diel oscillations. Consequently, the high RH-grown plants are not only vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stress, but also undergo a deregulation between CO2 uptake and water loss. Stomatal behavior of a single leaf is determined by the local microclimate during expansion, and may be different than the remaining leaves of the same plant. No effect of high RH is apparent in C4 and CAM species, while the same is expected for species with hydropassive stomatal closure. Formation of bigger stomata with larger pores is a universal response to high RH during leaf expansion, whereas the effect on stomatal density appears to be species- and leaf side-specific. Compelling evidence suggests that ABA mediates the high RH-induced stomatal malfunction, as well as the stomatal size increase. Although high RH stimulates leaf ethylene evolution, it remains elusive whether or not this contributes to stomatal malfunction. Most species lose stomatal function following mid-term (4–7 d) exposure to high RH following leaf expansion. Consequently, the regulatory role of ambient humidity on stomatal functionality is not limited to the period of leaf expansion, but holds throughout the leaf life span.
ISSN: 0981-9428
DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.05.024
Rights: © Elsevier
Type: Article
Affiliation : Hellenic Mediterranean University 
Giannakakis SA 
University of Tehran 
University of Tartu 
International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA) 
Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops 
Lorestan University 
University of Peloponnese 
Agricultural University of Athens 
Hellenic Agricultural Organization “Demeter” 
Cyprus University of Technology 
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