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Title: The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale
Authors: Lelieveld, Jos 
Evans, John S. 
Fnais, Mohammed S. 
Giannadaki, Despina 
Pozzer, Andrea 
Major Field of Science: Natural Sciences
Field Category: Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Keywords: Fine particulate matter;Circulation model Echam5/Messy1;Chemistry-climate model;Submodel system messy;Atmospheric chemistry;Technical note;Human health;Burden;Ozone;Emissions
Issue Date: 16-Sep-2015
Source: Nature, 2015, vol. 525, no. 7569, pp. 367-371
Volume: 525
Issue: 7569
Start page: 367
End page: 371
Journal: Nature 
Abstract: Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050.
ISSN: 00280836
DOI: 10.1038/nature15371
Rights: © Macmillan
Type: Article
Affiliation : Max Planck Institute 
The Cyprus Institute 
Harvard University 
Cyprus University of Technology 
King Saud University 
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