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Title: EARLINET observations of Saharan dust intrusions over the northern Mediterranean region (2014-2017): Properties and impact on radiative forcing
Authors: Soupiona, Ourania 
Papayannis, Alexandros 
Kokkalis, Panagiotis 
Foskinis, Romanos 
Sánchez Hernández, Guadalupe 
Ortiz-Amezcua, Pablo 
Mylonaki, Maria 
Papanikolaou, Christina Anna 
Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos 
Samaras, Stefanos 
Groß, Silke 
Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet 
Alados-Arboledas, Lucas 
Amodeo, Aldo 
Psiloglou, Basil 
Major Field of Science: Natural Sciences
Field Category: Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Keywords: Optical-properties;Mineral-dust;Raman lidar;Desert dust;Particle-properties;Iberian Peninsula;African dust;AEROSOL;Backscatter;Extinction
Issue Date: 7-Dec-2020
Source: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2020, vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 15147-15166
Volume: 20
Issue: 23
Start page: 15147
End page: 15166
Journal: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 
Abstract: Remote sensing measurements of aerosols using depolarization Raman lidar systems from four EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) stations are used for a comprehensive analysis of Saharan dust events over the Mediterranean basin in the period 2014-2017. In this period, 51 dust events regarding the geometrical, optical and microphysical properties of dust were selected, classified and assessed according to their radiative forcing effect on the atmosphere. From west to east, the stations of Granada, Potenza, Athens and Limassol were selected as representative Mediterranean cities regularly affected by Saharan dust intrusions. Emphasis was given on lidar measurements in the visible (532nm) and specifically on the consistency of the particle linear depolarization ratio (δp532), the extinction-to-backscatter lidar ratio (LR532) and the aerosol optical thickness (AOT532) within the observed dust layers. We found mean δp532 values of 0.24±0.05, 0.26±0.06, 0.28±0.05 and 0.28±0.04, mean LR532 values of 52±8, 51±9, 52±9 and 49±6sr and mean AOT532 values of 0.40±0.31, 0.11±0.07, 0.12±0.10 and 0.32±0.17, for Granada, Potenza, Athens and Limassol, respectively. The mean layer thickness values were found to range from ∼1700 to ∼3400ma.s.l. Additionally, based also on a previous aerosol type classification scheme provided by airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) observations and on air mass backward trajectory analysis, a clustering analysis was performed in order to identify the mixing state of the dusty layers over the studied area. Furthermore, a synergy of lidar measurements and modeling was used to analyze the solar and thermal radiative forcing of airborne dust in detail. In total, a cooling behavior in the solar range and a significantly lower heating behavior in the thermal range was estimated. Depending on the dust optical and geometrical properties, the load intensity and the solar zenith angle (SZA), the estimated solar radiative forcing values range from -59 to -22Wm-2 at the surface and from -24 to -1Wm-2 at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Similarly, in the thermal spectral range these values range from +2 to +4Wm-2 for the surface and from +1 to +3Wm-2 for the TOA. Finally, the radiative forcing seems to be inversely proportional to the dust mixing ratio, since higher absolute values are estimated for less mixed dust layers.
ISSN: 1680-7324
DOI: 10.5194/acp-20-15147-2020
Rights: © Author(s)
Type: Article
Affiliation : National Technical University Of Athens 
Kuwait University 
University of Granada 
Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA-CEAMA) 
CNR - National Research Council of Italy 
German Aerospace Center 
Institute of Atmospheric Physics 
Cyprus University of Technology 
ERATOSTHENES Centre of Excellence 
National Observatory of Athens 
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