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Title: Understanding Small-Signal Stability of Low-Inertia Systems
Authors: Markovic, Uros 
Stanojev, Ognjen 
Aristidou, Petros 
Vrettos, Evangelos 
Callaway, Duncan S. 
Hug, Gabriela 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Field Category: Electrical Engineering - Electronic Engineering - Information Engineering
Keywords: Analytical models;Converters;Differential-algebraic equations;Inverters;Low-inertia systems;Power conversion;Power system dynamics;Power system stability;Small-signal stability;Stability criteria;Synchronous generator;Voltage source converter
Issue Date: Sep-2021
Source: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2021, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 3997 - 4017
Volume: 36
Issue: 5
Start page: 3997
End page: 4017
Journal: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 
Abstract: Large-scale integration of renewable generation, usually interfaced to the network through power electronics, has led to drastic changes in power system dynamics. This paper presents novel insights into stability properties of such systems. For that purpose, a high-fidelity dynamic model of a generic low-inertia power system has been developed. The full-order, state-of-the-art control schemes of both synchronous and converter-based generators are included, with the latter differentiating between grid-forming and grid-following mode of operation. Furthermore, the dynamics of transmission lines and loads are captured in the model. Using modal analysis techniques such as participation factors and parameter sensitivity, the most vulnerable segments of the system are determined and the adverse effects of timescale coupling and control interference are investigated. More precisely, this work characterizes the maximum permissible penetration levels of inverter-based generation as well as the nature of the associated unstable modes and the underlying dynamics. Finally, potential directions for improving the system stability margin under different generation portfolios are proposed for several benchmark systems.
ISSN: 15580679
DOI: 10.1109/TPWRS.2021.3061434
Rights: © IEEE
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Type: Article
Affiliation : ETH Zurich 
Cyprus University of Technology 
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 
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