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Title: Needs and Gaps in Optical Underwater Technologies and Methods for the Investigation of Marine Animal Forest 3D-Structural Complexity
Authors: Rossi, Paolo 
Ponti, Massimo 
Righi, Sara 
Castagnetti, Cristina 
Simonini, Roberto 
Mancini, Francesco 
Agrafiotis, Panagiotis 
Bassani, Leonardo 
Bruno, Fabio 
Cerrano, Carlo 
Cignoni, Paolo 
Corsini, Massimiliano 
Drap, Pierre 
Dubbini, Marco 
Garrabou, Joaquim 
Gori, Andrea 
Gracias, Nuno 
Ledoux, Jean Baptiste 
Linares, Cristina 
Mantas, Torcuato Pulido 
Menna, Fabio 
Nocerino, Erica 
Palma, Marco 
Pavoni, Gaia 
Ridolfi, Alessandro 
Rossi, Sergio 
Skarlatos, Dimitrios 
Treibitz, Tali 
Turicchia, Eva 
Yuval, Matan 
Capra, Alessandro 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Field Category: Civil Engineering
Keywords: 3D monitoring;Biodiversity;Biogenic reefs conservation;Semantic segmentation;Underwater photogrammetry
Issue Date: 5-Mar-2021
Source: Frontiers in Marine Science, 2021, vol. 8, articl. no. 591292
Volume: 8
Journal: Frontiers in Marine Science 
Abstract: Marine animal forests are benthic communities dominated by sessile suspension feeders (such as sponges, corals, and bivalves) able to generate three-dimensional (3D) frameworks with high structural complexity. The biodiversity and functioning of marine animal forests are strictly related to their 3D complexity. The present paper aims at providing new perspectives in underwater optical surveys. Starting from the current gaps in data collection and analysis that critically limit the study and conservation of marine animal forests, we discuss the main technological and methodological needs for the investigation of their 3D structural complexity at different spatial and temporal scales. Despite recent technological advances, it seems that several issues in data acquisition and processing need to be solved, to properly map the different benthic habitats in which marine animal forests are present, their health status and to measure structural complexity. Proper precision and accuracy should be chosen and assured in relation to the biological and ecological processes investigated. Besides, standardized methods and protocols are strictly necessary to meet the FAIR (findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability) data principles for the stewardship of habitat mapping and biodiversity, biomass, and growth data.
ISSN: 2296-7745
DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2021.591292
Rights: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Type: Article
Affiliation : University of Modena and Reggio Emilia 
Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze del Mare 
University of Bologna 
National Technical University Of Athens 
University of Calabria 
University of Marche 
Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn 
Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell’Informazione 
Université De Toulon 
University of Barcelona 
University of Girona 
Institute of Marine Sciences Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas 
Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental 
Bruno Kessler Foundation 
Underwater Bio-Cartography 
Habitats Edge Ltd. 
University of Florence 
Interuniversity Center of Integrated Systems for the Marine Environment 
University of Salento 
Universidade Federal do Ceará 
Cyprus University of Technology 
University of Haifa 
University of Bologna 
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