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Title: Global geographic distribution and host range of fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker
Authors: Drenkhan, Rein 
Ganley, Beccy 
Martín-García, Jorge 
Vahalík, Petr 
Adamson, Kalev 
Adamčíková, Katarína 
Ahumada, Rodrigo 
Blank, Lior 
Bragança, Helena 
Capretti, Paolo 
Cleary, Michelle R. 
Cornejo, Carolina 
Davydenko, Kateryna 
Díez, Julio Javier 
Lehtijärvi, Hatice Tuǧba Doǧmuş 
Dvořák, Miloň 
Enderle, Rasmus 
Fourie, Gerda 
Georgieva, Margarita 
Ghelardini, Luisa 
Hantula, Jarkko 
Ioos, Renaud 
Iturritxa, Eugenia 
Kanetis, Loukas 
Karpun, Natalia N. 
Koltay, András 
Landeras, Elena 
Markovskaja, S. 
Mesanza, Nebai 
Milenković, Ivan 
Musolin, Dmitry L. 
Nikolaou, Konstantinos 
Nowakowska, Justyna Anna 
Ogris, Nikica 
Oskay, Funda 
Oszako, Tomasz M. 
Papazova-Anakieva, Irena 
Paraschiv, Marius 
Pasquali, Matias 
Pecori, Francesco 
Rafoss, Trond 
Raitelaitytė, Kristina 
Raposo, Rosa 
Robin, Cécile 
Rodas, Carlos A. 
Santini, Alberto 
Sanz-Ros, Antonio Vicente 
Selikhovkin, Andrey V. 
Solla, Alejandro 
Soukainen, Mirkka 
Soulioti, Nikoleta 
Steenkamp, Emma T. 
Tsopelas, Panaghiotis 
Vemić, Aleksandar 
Vettraino, Annamaria 
Wingfield, Michael J. 
Woodward, Stephen 
Zamora-Ballesteros, Cristina 
Mullett, Martin S. 
Major Field of Science: Natural Sciences
Field Category: Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Keywords: Climate change;Interactive map of pathogen;Invasive pathogen;Susceptibility
Issue Date: Jul-2020
Source: Forests, 2020, vol. 11, no. 7, articl. no. 724
Volume: 11
Issue: 7
Journal: Forests 
Abstract: Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker (PPC), is currently one of the most important threats of Pinus spp. globally. This pathogen is known in many pine-growing regions, including natural and planted forests, and can affect all life stages of trees, from emerging seedlings to mature trees. Despite the importance of PPC, the global distribution of F. circinatum is poorly documented, and this problem is also true of the hosts within countries that are affected. The aim of this study was to review the global distribution of F. circinatum, with a particular focus on Europe. We considered (1) the current and historical pathogen records, both positive and negative, based on confirmed reports from Europe and globally; (2) the genetic diversity and population structure of the pathogen; (3) the current distribution of PPC in Europe, comparing published models of predicted disease distribution; and (4) host susceptibility by reviewing literature and generating a comprehensive list of known hosts for the fungus. These data were collated from 41 countries and used to compile a specially constructed geo-database. A review of 6297 observation records showed that F. circinatum and the symptoms it causes on conifers occurred in 14 countries, including four in Europe, and is absent in 28 countries. Field observations and experimental data from 138 host species revealed 106 susceptible host species including 85 Pinus species, 6 non-pine tree species and 15 grass and herb species. Our data confirm that susceptibility to F. circinatum varies between different host species, tree ages and environmental characteristics. Knowledge on the geographic distribution, host range and the relative susceptibility of different hosts is essential for disease management, mitigation and containment strategies. The findings reported in this review will support countries that are currently free of F. circinatum in implementing effective procedures and restrictions and prevent further spread of the pathogen.
ISSN: 1999-4907
DOI: 10.3390/F11070724
Rights: © The authors.
Type: Article
Affiliation : Estonian University of Life Sciences 
The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited 
University of Valladolid 
Mendel University in Brno 
Slovak Academy of Sciences 
Bioforest S.A. 
Agricultural Research Organization - Volcani Center 
Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária 
GREEN-IT Bioresources for Sustainability 
Universita degli Studi di Firenze 
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences 
WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute 
G. M. Vysotskiy Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration 
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences 
Isparta University of Applied Sciences 
Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants 
University of Pretoria 
University Roads 
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 
Natural Resources Institute Finland 
ANSES Plant Health Laboratory 
Campus Agroalimentario de Arkaute 
Cyprus University of Technology 
Russian Research Institute of Floriculture and Subtropical Crops 
NARIC Forest Research Institute 
Gobierno del Principado de Asturias 
Nature Research Centre 
University of Belgrade 
Saint Petersburg State Forest Technical University 
Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Environment, Cyprus 
Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw 
Slovenian Forestry Institute 
Çankırı Karatekin University 
Forest Research Institute in Sekocin Stary 
SS Cyril and Methodius University 
National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry 
University of Milan 
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection 
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research 
National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology 
University of Bordeaux 
Calabazanos Forest Health Center 
Saint Petersburg State University 
University of Extremadura 
Finnish Food Authority 
Institute of Mediterranean Forest Ecosystems 
University of Tuscia 
University of Aberdeen 
University of Valladolid 
Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge 
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