There is an alarming increase in global incidence rates of thyroid nodules partially ascribed to the augmented use of ultrasonographs, while the effect of thyroid-disrupting environmental chemicals (TDC), such as, bisphenol A (BPA)- a plastic additive, or octyl-methoxy cinnamate (OMC)- an ultraviolet filter, on the etiology of thyroid nodular disease remains poorly understood. Commonly used food-contact materials, diet and personal care consumer products may contain BPA and OMC that both of them have been implicated with perturbations in thyroid hormonal homeostasis at low and environmentally-relevant human doses (Andra and Makris, 2012). Cyprus is among the countries with the highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. Although a relatively small percentage of the observed thyroid nodules (about 8-10%) may proceed to malignancy, the rest benign thyroid nodules present us with clinical symptoms requiring treatment. The overall goal of the THYROCHEM project is to explore associations between specific TDC and thyroid hormonal perturbations in a case-control sample of Cyprus and Romania.