The growing recognition that the conservation of biodiversity in Europe depends on the continuation of low-intensity farming systems resulted in the concept of high nature value farming (HNVF). In the Mediterranean in particular, HNVF includes some of the most traditional agricultural crops such as cork oaks, olives, carob and vineyards. In Cyprus, carob groves and vineyards are among the crops that are inextricably linked with the economic and cultural character of the island. At the same time these crop systems, when farmed at low-intensity, support species of fauna and flora that are important at the national or European level, while providing a number of other ecosystem services. Despite their importance, these HNVF types on the island are now threatened by intensification, abandonment and lack of awareness about their role.