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Title: Evaluation of focused ultrasound algorithms: Issues for reducing pre-focal heating and treatment time
Authors: Yiannakou, Marinos 
Trimikliniotis, Michael 
Yiallouras, Christos 
Damianou, Christakis A. 
Keywords: Algorithm;Pre-focal field;Ultrasound
Category: Electrical Engineering - Electronic Engineering - Information Engineering
Field: Engineering and Technology
Issue Date: 1-Feb-2016
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Source: Ultrasonics, 2016, vol. 65, pp. 145-153
Journal: Ultrasonics 
Abstract: All rights reserved.Background Due to the heating in the pre-focal field the delay between successive movements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are sometimes as long as 60 s, resulting to treatment time in the order of 2-3 h. Because there is generally a requirement to reduce treatment time, we were motivated to explore alternative transducer motion algorithms in order to reduce pre-focal heating and treatment time. Materials and methods A 1 MHz single element transducer with 4 cm diameter and 10 cm focal length was used. A simulation model was developed that estimates the temperature, thermal dose and lesion development in the pre-focal field. The simulated temperature history that was combined with the motion algorithms produced thermal maps in the pre-focal region. Polyacrylimde gel phantom was used to evaluate the induced pre-focal heating for each motion algorithm used, and also was used to assess the accuracy of the simulation model. Results Three out of the six algorithms having successive steps close to each other, exhibited severe heating in the pre-focal field. Minimal heating was produced with the algorithms having successive steps apart from each other (square, square spiral and random). The last three algorithms were improved further (with small cost in time), thus eliminating completely the pre-focal heating and reducing substantially the treatment time as compared to traditional algorithms. Conclusions Out of the six algorithms, 3 were successful in eliminating the pre-focal heating completely. Because these 3 algorithms required no delay between successive movements (except in the last part of the motion), the treatment time was reduced by 93%. Therefore, it will be possible in the future, to achieve treatment time of focused ultrasound therapies shorter than 30 min. The rate of ablated volume achieved with one of the proposed algorithms was 71 cm3/h. The intention of this pilot study was to demonstrate that the navigation algorithms play the most important role in reducing pre-focal heating. By evaluating in the future, all commercially available geometries, it will be possible to reduce the treatment time, for thermal ablation protocols intended for oncological targets.
ISSN: 0041-624X
DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2015.10.007
Collaboration : Cyprus University of Technology
Rights: © Elsevier
Type: Article
Appears in Collections:Άρθρα/Articles

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