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Title: Charge versus Energy Transfer Effects in High-Performance Perylene Diimide Photovoltaic Blend Films
Authors: Singh, Ranbir R. 
Shivanna, Ravichandran 
Iosifidis, Agathaggelos 
Butt, Hans Jürgen 
Floudas, George A. 
Narayan, K. S. 
Keivanidis, Panagiotis E. 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Field Category: Mechanical Engineering
Keywords: Charge transfer;Energy transfer;Excimer dissociation;Fullerene-free OPVs;Nonfullerene acceptors;Perylene diimide;Self-assembly
Issue Date: 20-Oct-2015
Source: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2015, vol. 7, no. 44, pp. 24876-24886.
Volume: 7
Issue: 44
Start page: 24876
End page: 24886
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b08224
Journal: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 
Abstract: Perylene diimide (PDI)-based organic photovoltaic devices can potentially deliver high power conversion efficiency values provided the photon energy absorbed is utilized efficiently in charge transfer (CT) reactions instead of being consumed in nonradiative energy transfer (ET) steps. Hitherto, it remains unclear whether ET or CT primarily drives the photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the PDI excimer state in PDI-based blend films. Here, we affirm the key role of the thermally assisted PDI excimer diffusion and subsequent CT reaction in the process of PDI excimer PL deactivation. For our study we perform PL quenching experiments in the model PDI-based composite made of poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2-6-diyl] (PBDTTT-CT) polymeric donor mixed with the N,N′-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) acceptor. Despite the strong spectral overlap between the PDI excimer PL emission and UV-vis absorption of PBDTTT-CT, two main observations indicate that no significant ET component operates in the overall PL quenching: the PL intensity of the PDI excimer (i) increases with decreasing temperature and (ii) remains unaffected even in the presence of 10 wt % content of the PBDTTT-CT quencher. Temperature-dependent wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments further indicate that nonradiative resonance ET is highly improbable due to the large size of PDI domains. The dominance of the CT over the ET process is verified by the high performance of devices with an optimum composition of 30:70 PBDTTT-CT:PDI. By adding 0.4 vol % of 1,8-diiodooctane we verify the plasticization of the polymer side chains that balances the charge transport properties of the PBDTTT-CT:PDI composite and results in additional improvement in the device efficiency. The temperature-dependent spectral width of the PDI excimer PL band suggests the presence of energetic disorder in the PDI excimer excited state manifold.
ISSN: 1944-8244
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b08224
Rights: © American Chemical Society.
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States
Type: Article
Affiliation : Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia 
Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research 
University of Ioannina 
Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research 
Cyprus University of Technology 
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