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dc.contributor.authorAndra, Syam S.-
dc.contributor.authorCharisiadis, Pantelis-
dc.contributor.authorArora, Manish-
dc.contributor.authorVan Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.-
dc.contributor.authorMakris, Konstantinos C.-
dc.contributor.otherΧαρισιάδης, Παντελής-
dc.contributor.otherΜακρής, Κωνσταντίνος-
dc.identifier.citationEnvironment International, 2015, Volume 85, Pages 352-379en_US
dc.description.abstractThe high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (ClxBPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA exposures have led to the gradual market entry of BPA structural analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), etc. A suite of exposure sources to ClxBPA and BPA analogs in the domestic environment is anticipated to drive the nature and range of halogenated BPA derivatives that can form when residual BPA comes in contact with disinfectant in tap water and/or consumer products. The primary objective of this review was to survey all available studies reporting biomonitoring protocols of ClxBPA and structural BPA analogs (BPS, BPF, BPB, etc.) in human matrices. Focus was paid on describing the analytical methodologies practiced for the analysis of ClxBPA and BPA analogs using hyphenated chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, because current methodologies for human matrices are complex. During the last decade, an increasing number of ecotoxicological, cell-culture and animal-based and human studies dealing with ClxBPA exposure sources and routes of exposure, metabolism and toxicity have been published. Up to date findings indicated the association of ClxBPA with metabolic conditions, such as obesity, lipid accumulation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. We critically discuss the limitations, research needs and future opportunities linked with the inclusion of ClxBPA and BPA analogs into exposure assessment protocols of relevant epidemiological studies.en_US
dc.publisherElsevier Ltden_US
dc.rights© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.en_US
dc.subjectBisphenol Aen_US
dc.subjectBPA analogsen_US
dc.subjectChlorinated derivativesen_US
dc.subjectBPA freeen_US
dc.subjectEmerging contaminantsen_US
dc.subjectMass spectrometryen_US
dc.subjectHuman exposureen_US
dc.titleBiomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol Aen_US
dc.collaborationIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinaien_US
dc.collaborationCyprus University of Technologyen_US
dc.collaborationUniversity of Sydneyen_US
dc.collaborationUniversity Medical Center Groningenen_US
dc.collaborationHarvard School of Public Healthen_US
dc.subject.categoryHealth Sciencesen_US
dc.journalsSubscription Journalen_US
dc.countryUnited Statesen_US
dc.subject.fieldMedical and Health Sciencesen_US
dc.publicationPeer Revieweden_US
item.fulltextNo Fulltext-
item.grantfulltextnone- International Institute for Environmental and Public Health- International Institute for Environmental and Public Health- of Health Sciences- of Health Sciences- of Health Sciences- of Health Sciences-
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