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Title: Wear and biomechanical characteristics of a novel shear-reducing insole with implications for high-risk persons with diabetes
Authors: Constantinides, Georgios 
Lavery, Lawrence A. 
Lanctot, Dan R. 
Zamorano, Ruben G. 
Athanasiou, Kyriacos A. 
Agrawal, Mauli Mauli 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Keywords: Polyethylene;Vinyl acetate;Biomechanics;Viscoelasticity
Issue Date: Aug-2005
Source: Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, 2005, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 638-646
Volume: 7
Issue: 4
Start page: 638
End page: 646
Journal: Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics 
Abstract: Objective: This study was designed to measure pressure and shear reduction of a novel insole design. Methods: We compared three multilayer viscoelastic insoles to a novel insole design (GlideSoft®, Xilas Medical, Inc., San Antonio, TX). The bottom pad of each insole was fabricated from firm-density Plastazote® [Apex Foot Products (now Aetrex), South Hackensack, NJ] with an upper of Plastazote, ethyl vinyl acetate, or PORON® (Langer Biomechanics Group, Inc., Deer Park, NY). The GlideSoft design used the same materials with two intervening thin sheets of a low friction material. We measured foot pressures, shear, and material stiffness prospectively as the insoles aged during daily usage in 30 healthy adults. We used the F-Scan® (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA) to determine in-shoe foot pressures and the Automated Stress-relaxation Creep Indenter System (Xilas Medical) to measure material stiffness. To evaluate shear force, the insole was placed on the slide assembly of a custom-designed shear tester equipped with a reciprocating mechanism and force transducers. Results: The GlideSoft exhibited 57% less peak shear force than the standard insole (P < 0.05) in laboratory testing under simulated conditions. Ethyl vinyl acetate had higher compressive stiffness values than Plastazote and PORON at all test intervals (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences between any of the insoles for peak in-shoe pressure measurements (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The GlideSoft design demonstrated a significant reduction in shear while maintaining equivalent pressure reduction compared with standard insole designs with three different material combinations for up to 320,000 steps.
ISSN: 1520-9156
DOI: 10.1089/dia.2005.7.638
Rights: © Mary Ann Liebert
Type: Article
Affiliation : Scott and White Hospital 
University of Texas 
Rice University 
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