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Title: Cyanotoxins: New generation of water contaminants
Authors: De La Cruz, Armah A.
Dionysiou, Dionysios Demetriou D.
Antoniou, Maria G. 
Keywords: Cyanobacterial toxins;Cyanobacteria;Water--Pollution
Issue Date: 2005
Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers
Source: Journal of environmental engineering, 2005, Volume 131, Issue 9, Pages 1239-1243
Abstract: Cyanobacteria, more commonly known as blue-green algae, are found worldwide in various aquatic environments as well as in water distribution systems (Atikovic 2003; Carmichael 1994; Madigan et al. 2003). Blooms of cyanobacteria have recently become spatially and temporally more prevalent in the United States and worldwide as a consequence of increasing nutrient levels such as nitrates and phosphates from fertilizers and detergents. Cyanobacterial blooms impart color, odor, and taste problems in water. More importantly, such blooms produce and release toxic compounds that dramatically impair the quality of water bodies. Up to 50% of the recorded blooms can be expected to contain toxins (Carmichael 1992). These compounds have severe and sometimes irreversible effects on mammalian health. Episodes of human and animal poisoning by consumption of water contaminated with cyanobacterial toxins have been reported since the late 1800s (Carmichael 1994). Exposure to cyanobacterial toxins can affect the number and diversity of wild animal populations, cause bioaccumulation of toxins in the tissues of fish and shellfish, and indirectly affect other organisms through the food chain. Moreover, the presence of cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in sources of drinking water supply has raised major concerns. Another major issue is the lack of guidelines or regulations of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in terms of maximum contaminant level (MCL) and analytical detection methods. In the past few years, major research effort has been targeted toward the treatment of these toxins, especially the hepatotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR).
ISSN: 07339372
DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2005)131:9(1239)
Rights: © 2005 ASCE
Type: Article
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