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Title: Destruction of Microcystins by Conventional and Advanced Oxidation Processes: a Review
Authors: Sharma, Virender Kumar 
Triantis, T.M. 
He, Xuexiang 
Pelaez, Miguel A. 
Han, Changseok 
Song, Weihua 
O’Shea, Kevin E. 
Kaloudis, Triantafyllos 
Hiskia, Anastasia E. 
Dionysiou, Dionysios Demetriou D. 
De La Cruz, Armah A. 
Antoniou, Maria G. 
Major Field of Science: Natural Sciences
Field Category: Environmental Engineering
Keywords: Microcystins;Cyanobacteria;Oxidation;Water quality;Chlorine
Issue Date: 3-May-2012
Source: Separation and Purification Technology, 2012, vol. 91, pp. 3-17
Volume: 91
Start page: 3
End page: 17
Journal: Separation and Purification Technology 
Abstract: Cyanobacteria blooms pose an environmental hazard because of the release of water soluble toxic compounds, called cyanotoxins. Microcystins (MCs), hepatotoxic cyclic peptide toxins, are the most widespread cyanotoxins with microcystin-LR (MC-LR) the most common and toxic variant. Health effects of MCs have resulted in the need of using efficient treatment methods for the removal of this class of toxins in water supplies. While physical treatment methods can remove MCs at full or some extent from contaminated water, their function is primary separation of the whole toxins as intact molecules and further processing is required. On the other hand, chemical oxidation processes are a promising alternative treatment option due to the potential of complete destruction of the MCs, transformation to less toxic by-products, and even complete mineralization. MCs reactivity towards different conventional oxidants is strongly affected by water quality parameters like pH, DOC and oxidant dose. Although there is a general trend for MCs oxidation (ozone > permanganate > chlorine >>> chlorine-based oxidants), the selection of the appropriate oxidant for toxin elimination during water treatment should be assessed for each particular source of water. Although advanced oxidation processes are generally more effective on MCs degradation than conventional oxidation processes, scale-up studies are needed before these methods are considered as economically-feasible and practical sustainable alternatives in water treatment facilities. In this review, recent literature concerning treatment of MCs in water by conventional and advanced oxidation processes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the degree of degradation, reaction kinetics, identity and toxicity of oxidation by-products and possible degradation pathways.
ISSN: 1383-5866
DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2012.02.018
Rights: © 2011 Elsevier
Type: Article
Affiliation : Florida Institute of Technology 
National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos 
Technical University of Denmark 
University of Cincinnati 
Fudan University 
Florida International University 
Office of Research and Development 
Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP SA) 
Cyprus University of Technology 
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