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Title: Household cleaning activities as noningestion exposure determinants of urinary trihalomethanes
Authors: Andra, Syam S. 
Christodoulou, Marinos 
Kargaki, Sophia 
Makris, Konstantinos C. 
Christophi, Costas A. 
Charisiadis, Pantelis 
Stephanou, Euripides G. 
Major Field of Science: Medical and Health Sciences
Field Category: Health Sciences
Keywords: Bladder cancers;Cross-sectional study;Epidemiological studies;Exposure assessment;Exposure determinants;Public waters;Trihalomethanes;Water source
Issue Date: 2014
Source: Environmental Science and Technology, 2014, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 770-780
Volume: 48
Issue: 1
Start page: 770
End page: 780
Journal: Environmental Science & Technology 
Abstract: Previous epidemiological studies linking drinking water total trihalomethanes (THM) with pregnancy disorders or bladder cancer have not accounted for specific household cleaning activities that could enhance THM exposures. We examined the relation between household cleaning activities (washing dishes/clothes, mopping, toilet cleaning, and washing windows/surfaces) and urinary THM concentrations accounting for water sources, uses, and demographics. A cross-sectional study (n = 326) was conducted during the summer in Nicosia, Cyprus, linking household addresses to the geocoded public water pipe network, individual household tap water, and urinary THM measurements. Household tap water THM concentrations ranged between 3-129 μg L -1, while the median (Q1, Q3) creatinine-adjusted urinary THM concentration in females (669 ng g-1 (353, 1377)) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that in males (399 ng g-1, (256, 681)). Exposure assessment, based on THM exposure equivalency units, showed that hand dishwashing, mopping, and toilet cleaning significantly (p < 0.001) increased urinary THM levels. The effect of dishwashing by females ≥36 y of age remained significant, even after adjusting for potential confounders. No significant (p > 0.05) association was observed between ingestion-based THM exposure equivalency units and urinary THM. Noningestion routes of THM exposures during performance of routine household cleaning activities were shown for the first time to exert a major influence on urinary THM levels. It is warranted that future pregnancy-birth cohorts include monitoring of noningestion household THM exposures in their study design.
ISSN: 0013-936X
DOI: 10.1021/es404220z
Rights: © American Chemical Society
Type: Article
Affiliation : Cyprus University of Technology 
Harvard School of Public Health 
University of Crete 
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