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Title: Long-term phosphorus immobilization by a drinking water treatment residual
Authors: Agyin-Birikorang, Sampson 
O'Connor, George A. 
Jacobs, Lee W. 
Brinton, Scott R. 
Makris, Konstantinos C. 
Major Field of Science: Natural Sciences
Field Category: Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Keywords: Computer simulation;Eutrophication;Leachate treatment;Phosphorus;Rain;Runoff;Soils;Water treatment;Phosphorus immobilization;Rainfall simulation techniques;Water treatment residuals (WTR)
Issue Date: 1-Jan-2007
Source: Journal of Environmental Quality, 2007, vol. 36, no.1, pp. 316-323
Volume: 36
Issue: 1
Start page: 316
End page: 323
Journal: Journal of Environmental Quality 
Abstract: Excessive soluble P in runoff is a common cause of eutrophication in fresh waters. Evidence indicates that drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can reduce soluble P concentrations in P-impacted soils in the short term (days to weeks). The long-term (years) stability of WTR-immobilized P has been inferred, but validating field data are scarce. This research was undertaken at two Michigan field sites with a history of heavy manure applications to study the longevity of alum-based WTR (Al-WTR) effects on P solubility over time (7.5 yr). At both sites, amendment with Al-WTR reduced water-soluble P (WSP) concentration by ≥60% as compared to the control plots, and the Al-WTR-immobilized P (WTR-P) remained stable 7.5 yr after Al-WTR application. Rainfall simulation techniques were utilized to investigate P losses in runoff and leachate from surface soils of the field sites at 7.5 yr after Al-WTR application. At both sites, amendment with Al-WTR reduced dissolved P and bioavailable P (BAP) by >50% as compared to the control plots, showing that WTR-immobilized P remained nonlabile even 7.5 yr after Al-WTR amendment. Thus, WTR-immobilized P would not be expected to dissolve into runoff and leachate to contaminate surface waters or ground water. Even if WTR-P is lost via erosion to surface waters, the bioavailability of the immobilized P should be minimal and should have negligible effects on water quality. However, if the WTR particles are destroyed by extreme conditions, P loss to water could pose a eutrophication risk.
ISSN: 1537-2537
DOI: 10.2134/jeq2006.0162
Rights: © American Society of Agronomy
Type: Article
Affiliation : University of Florida 
Michigan State University 
University of Texas 
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