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Title: Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health: An international study
Authors: Gloster, Andrew T. 
Lamnisos, Demetris 
Lubenko, Jelena 
Presti, Giovambattista 
Squatrito, Valeria 
Constantinou, Marios 
Nicolaou, Christiana 
Papacostas, Savvas S. 
Aydin, Gökçen 
Chong, Yuen Yu 
Chien, Wai Tong 
Cheng, Ho Yu 
Ruiz, Francisco J. 
Garcia-Martin, Maria B. 
Obando-Posada, Diana P. 
Segura-Vargas, Miguel A. 
Vasiliou, Vasilis S. 
McHugh, Louise 
Höfer, Stefan 
Baban, Adriana 
Neto, David Dias 
Nunes da Silva, Ana 
Monestès, Jean-Louis 
Alvarez-Galvez, Javier 
Paez-Blarrina, Marisa 
Montesinos, Francisco 
Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles 
Ori, Dorottya 
Kleszcz, Bartosz 
Lappalainen, Raimo 
Ivanović, Iva 
Gosar, David 
Dionne, Frederick 
Merwin, Rhonda M. 
Kassianos, Angelos P. 
Karekla, Maria 
Editors: Francis, Joel Msafiri 
Major Field of Science: Medical and Health Sciences
Field Category: Clinical Medicine
Keywords: COVID-19;Adult;Mental Health;Middle Aged;Pandemics;Socioeconomic Factors
Issue Date: Dec-2020
Source: PLoS ONE, vol. 15, no. 12, articl. no. e0244809
Volume: 15
Issue: 12
Journal: PLoS ONE 
Abstract: Background The COVID-19 pandemic triggered vast governmental lockdowns. The impact of these lockdowns on mental health is inadequately understood. On the one hand such drastic changes in daily routines could be detrimental to mental health. On the other hand, it might not be experienced negatively, especially because the entire population was affected. Methods The aim of this study was to determine mental health outcomes during pandemic induced lockdowns and to examine known predictors of mental health outcomes. We therefore surveyed n = 9,565 people from 78 countries and 18 languages. Outcomes assessed were stress, depression, affect, and wellbeing. Predictors included country, sociodemographic factors, lockdown characteristics, social factors, and psychological factors. Results Results indicated that on average about 10% of the sample was languishing from low levels of mental health and about 50% had only moderate mental health. Importantly, three consistent predictors of mental health emerged: social support, education level, and psychologically flexible (vs. rigid) responding. Poorer outcomes were most strongly predicted by a worsening of finances and not having access to basic supplies. Conclusions These results suggest that on whole, respondents were moderately mentally healthy at the time of a population-wide lockdown. The highest level of mental health difficulties were found in approximately 10% of the population. Findings suggest that public health initiatives should target people without social support and those whose finances worsen as a result of the lockdown. Interventions that promote psychological flexibility may mitigate the impact of the pandemic.
ISSN: 1932-6203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244809
Rights: © Gloster et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Type: Article
Affiliation : University of Basel 
European University Cyprus 
Riga Stradin¸š University 
Kore University of Enna 
University of Nicosia 
Cyprus University of Technology 
Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics 
Hasan Kalyoncu University 
The Chinese University of Hong Kong 
Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz 
University of La Sabana 
University College Cork 
University College Dublin 
Innsbruck Medical University 
Babeş-Bolyai University 
Instituto Universitário 
Universidade de Lisboa 
Université Grenoble Alpes 
University of Cádiz 
Instituto ACT 
University of Madrid 
University of Zaragoza 
Vadaskert Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital 
University of Jyväskylä 
Clinical Center of Montenegro 
Ljubljana University Medical Centre 
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières 
Duke University 
University of Cyprus 
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