Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ktisis.cut.ac.cy/handle/10488/19348
Title: A critical analysis of the potential for EU Common Agricultural Policy measures to support wild pollinators on farmland
Authors: Cole, Lorna J. 
Kleijn, David 
Dicks, Lynn 
Stout, Jane Catherine 
Potts, Simon Geoffrey 
Albrecht, Matthias 
Balzan, Mario V. 
Bartomeus, Ignasi 
Bebeli, Penelope J. 
Bevk, Danilo 
Biesmeijer, Jacobus Christiaan (Koos) 
Chlebo, Róbert 
Dautartė, Anželika 
Emmanouil, Nikolaos G. 
Hartfield, Chris M. 
Holland, John M. 
Holzschuh, Andrea 
Knoben, Nieke T.J. 
Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó 
Mandelik, Yael 
Panou, Heleni N. 
Paxton, Robert John 
Petanidou, Theodora 
Pinheiro de Carvalho, Miguel Â.A. 
Rundlöf, Maj 
Sarthou, Jean Pierre 
Stavrinides, Menelaos 
Suso, María José 
Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka 
Vaissière, Bernard E. 
Varnava, Androulla I. 
Vilà, Montserrat 
Zemeckis, Romualdas 
Scheper, Jeroen 
Major Field of Science: Natural Sciences
Field Category: Biological Sciences
Keywords: Agri-environment schemes;Bees;CAP Green Architecture;Common Agricultural Policy;Ecological Focus Areas;Habitat complementarity;Pollination services;Pollinator conservation
Issue Date: 1-Apr-2020
Source: Journal of Applied Ecology, 2020, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 681-694
Volume: 57
Issue: 4
Start page: 681
End page: 694
Journal: Journal of Applied Ecology 
Abstract: Agricultural intensification and associated loss of high-quality habitats are key drivers of insect pollinator declines. With the aim of decreasing the environmental impact of agriculture, the 2014 EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) defined a set of habitat and landscape features (Ecological Focus Areas: EFAs) farmers could select from as a requirement to receive basic farm payments. To inform the post-2020 CAP, we performed a European-scale evaluation to determine how different EFA options vary in their potential to support insect pollinators under standard and pollinator-friendly management, as well as the extent of farmer uptake. A structured Delphi elicitation process engaged 22 experts from 18 European countries to evaluate EFAs options. By considering life cycle requirements of key pollinating taxa (i.e. bumble bees, solitary bees and hoverflies), each option was evaluated for its potential to provide forage, bee nesting sites and hoverfly larval resources. EFA options varied substantially in the resources they were perceived to provide and their effectiveness varied geographically and temporally. For example, field margins provide relatively good forage throughout the season in Southern and Eastern Europe but lacked early-season forage in Northern and Western Europe. Under standard management, no single EFA option achieved high scores across resource categories and a scarcity of late season forage was perceived. Experts identified substantial opportunities to improve habitat quality by adopting pollinator-friendly management. Improving management alone was, however, unlikely to ensure that all pollinator resource requirements were met. Our analyses suggest that a combination of poor management, differences in the inherent pollinator habitat quality and uptake bias towards catch crops and nitrogen-fixing crops severely limit the potential of EFAs to support pollinators in European agricultural landscapes. Policy Implications. To conserve pollinators and help protect pollination services, our expert elicitation highlights the need to create a variety of interconnected, well-managed habitats that complement each other in the resources they offer. To achieve this the Common Agricultural Policy post-2020 should take a holistic view to implementation that integrates the different delivery vehicles aimed at protecting biodiversity (e.g. enhanced conditionality, eco-schemes and agri-environment and climate measures). To improve habitat quality we recommend an effective monitoring framework with target-orientated indicators and to facilitate the spatial targeting of options collaboration between land managers should be incentivised.
URI: https://ktisis.cut.ac.cy/handle/10488/19348
ISSN: 1365-2664
DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.13572
Rights: © The Authors
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Type: Article
Affiliation : Scotland’s Rural College 
Wageningen University 
University of East Anglia 
University of Cambridge 
Trinity College Dublin 
University of Reading 
Agroscope 
Malta College of Arts, Science and Technology 
Estación Biológica de Doñana 
Agricultural University of Athens 
National Institute of Biology 
Naturalis Biodiversity Center 
Universiteit Leiden 
Slovak University of Agriculture 
Vytautas Magnus University 
National Farmers’ Union 
Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust 
University of Würzburg 
MTA Centre for Ecological Research 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem 
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg 
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research 
University of Aegean 
University of Madeira 
Lund University 
University of Toulouse 
Cyprus University of Technology 
Institute for Sustainable Agriculture 
Jagiellonian University 
INRA 
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