Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: The long-term impact of restricting cycling and walking during high air pollution days on all-cause mortality: Health impact Assessment study
Authors: Giallouros, Giorgos 
Kouis, Panayiotis 
Papatheodorou, Stefania 
Woodcock, James D. 
Tainio, Marko 
Major Field of Science: Medical and Health Sciences
Field Category: Basic Medicine
Keywords: Active Commuting;Air pollution;Bike;Modelling;Mortality;Physical activity
Issue Date: Jul-2020
Source: Environment International, 2020, vol. 140, articl. no. 105679
Volume: 140
Journal: Environment International 
Abstract: Regular active commuting, such as cycling and walking to and from the workplace, is associated with lower all-cause mortality through increased physical activity (PA). However, active commuting may increase intake of fine particles (PM2.5), causing negative health effects. The purpose of this study is to estimate the combined risk of PA and air pollution for all-cause mortality among active commuters who, on days with high PM2.5 levels, switch to commuting by public transportation or work from home. Towards this purpose, we developed a Health Impact Assessment model for six cities (Helsinki, London, Sao Paulo, Warsaw, Beijing, New Delhi) using daily, city-specific PM2.5 concentrations. For each city we estimated combined Relative Risk (RR) due to all-cause mortality for the PA benefits and PM2.5 risks with different thresholds concentrations. Everyday cycling to work resulted in annual all-cause mortality risk reductions ranging from 28 averted deaths per 1000 cyclists (95% confidence interval (CI): 20–38) in Sao Paolo to 12 averted deaths per 1000 cyclists (95% CI: 5–19) in Beijing. Similarly, for everyday walking, the reductions in annual all-cause mortality ranged from 23 averted deaths per 1000 pedestrians (95 CI: 16–31) in Sao Paolo to 10 averted deaths per 1000 pedestrians (95%CI: 5–16) in Beijing. Restricting active commuting during days with PM2.5 levels above specific air quality thresholds would not decrease all-cause mortality risk in any examined city. On the contrary, all-cause mortality risk would increase if walking and cycling are restricted in days with PM2.5 concentrations below 150 μg/m3 in highly polluted cities (Beijing, New Delhi). In all six cities, everyday active commuting reduced all-cause mortality when benefits of PA and risk or air pollution were combined. Switching to working from home or using public transport on days with high air pollution is not expected to lead to improved all-cause mortality risks.
ISSN: 0160-4120
DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105679
Rights: © The Authors
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Type: Article
Affiliation : University of Cyprus 
Cyprus University of Technology 
Harvard University 
University of Cambridge 
Polish Academy of Science 
Finnish Environment Institute SYKE 
Appears in Collections:Άρθρα/Articles

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat
1-s2.0-S0160412019337122-main.pdfFulltext2.43 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
CORE Recommender
Show full item record


checked on Jul 25, 2021


Last Week
Last month
checked on Apr 17, 2021

Page view(s)

Last Week
Last month
checked on Aug 2, 2021


checked on Aug 2, 2021

Google ScholarTM



This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons