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|Title:||Standardized Map of Iodine Status in Europe||Authors:||Ittermann, Till
De Castro, João Jácome
Filipsson Nyström, Helena
Gheorghiu, Monica Livia
Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja B.
Karanfilski, Borislav T.
Makris, Konstantinos C.
Markou, Kostas Β.
Milevska Kostova, Neda
Mullen, Karen R.
Nagy, Endre V.
Woodside, Jayne V.
Zimmermann, Michaël Bruce
|Major Field of Science:||Medical and Health Sciences||Field Category:||Clinical Medicine||Keywords:||Epidemiology;Iodine;Iodine supply;Method comparison||Issue Date:||Sep-2020||Source:||Thyroid, 2020, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1346-1354||Volume:||30||Issue:||9||Start page:||1346||End page:||1354||Journal:||Thyroid||Abstract:||Knowledge about the population's iodine status is important, because it allows adjustment of iodine supply and prevention of iodine deficiency. The validity and comparability of iodine-related population studies can be improved by standardization, which was one of the goals of the EUthyroid project. The aim of this study was to establish the first standardized map of iodine status in Europe by using standardized urinary iodine concentration (UIC) data. Materials and Methods: We established a gold-standard laboratory in Helsinki measuring UIC by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A total of 40 studies from 23 European countries provided 75 urine samples covering the whole range of concentrations. Conversion formulas for UIC derived from the gold-standard values were established by linear regression models and were used to postharmonize the studies by standardizing the UIC data of the individual studies. Results: In comparison with the EUthyroid gold-standard, mean UIC measurements were higher in 11 laboratories and lower in 10 laboratories. The mean differences ranged from -36.6% to 49.5%. Of the 40 postharmonized studies providing data for the standardization, 16 were conducted in schoolchildren, 13 in adults, and 11 in pregnant women. Median standardized UIC was <100 μg/L in 1 out of 16 (6.3%) studies in schoolchildren, while in adults 7 out of 13 (53.8%) studies had a median standardized UIC <100 μg/L. Seven out of 11 (63.6%) studies in pregnant women revealed a median UIC <150 μg/L. Conclusions: We demonstrate that iodine deficiency is still present in Europe, using standardized data from a large number of studies. Adults and pregnant women, particularly, are at risk for iodine deficiency, which calls for action. For instance, a more uniform European legislation on iodine fortification is warranted to ensure that noniodized salt is replaced by iodized salt more often. In addition, further efforts should be put on harmonizing iodine-related studies and iodine measurements to improve the validity and comparability of results.||URI:||https://ktisis.cut.ac.cy/handle/10488/19285||ISSN:||1557-9077||DOI:||10.1089/thy.2019.0353||Rights:||© Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
|Type:||Article||Affiliation :||University Medicine Greifswald
Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology
Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
Institute of Endocrinology
Hospital das Forças Armadas
Institute of Marine Research
University of Gothenburg
Sahlgrenska University Hospital
University Medical Centre
Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga
Carol Davila University of Medicine & Pharmacy
C.I. Parhon National Institute of Endocrinology
Jagiellonian University Medical College
Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Centre
Centre for Regional Policy Research and Cooperation "studiorum"
SS Cyril and Methodius University
Cyprus University of Technology
University of Patras Medical School
Ludwig-Maximilians Universität Munich
German Research Center for Environmental Health
Belfast Health and Social Care Trust
University of Debrecen
University of Niš
Robert Koch Institute
Dokuz Eylül University
Hospital de Sant Joan Despi Moisès Broggi
University of Pisa
Queen's University Belfast
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