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Title: A 21-day sub-acute, whole-body inhalation exposure to printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles in rats: Exploring pulmonary and systemic effects
Authors: Pirela, Sandra Vanessa 
Bhattacharya, Kunal 
Wang, Yun 
Zhang, Yipei 
Wang, Guanghe 
Christophi, Costas A. 
Godleski, John J. 
Thomas, Treye A. 
Qian, Yong 
Orandle, Marlene S. 
Sisler, Jennifer D. 
Bello, Dhimiter 
Castranova, Vincent C. 
Demokritou, Philip 
Major Field of Science: Medical and Health Sciences
Field Category: Clinical Medicine
Keywords: Laser printer emissions;Engineered nanoparticles;Lung;Inflammation;Oxidative stress;Exposure biology
Issue Date: Mar-2019
Source: NanoImpact, 2019, vol. 15, articl. no. 100176
Volume: 15
Journal: NanoImpact 
Abstract: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) used in toners to improve their performance are released in the air during laser printer use. ENMs play an important catalytic role in the breakdown of the toner polymer and subsequent rearrangement of organic compounds as well as in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular, animal, and human occupational exposure studies have shown that such printer-emitted particles (PEPs) induce inflammation, systemic oxidative stress, and genotoxicity, as well as, increase frequency of coughing, wheezing, and upper airway symptoms, raising concerns about their long-term impact on human health. No safety thresholds or regulatory guidelines currently exist for PEPs. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed (by whole-body inhalation) to PEPs 5 h/day for up to 21 days using an exposure platform previously developed by the authors. The control group comprised of an equal number of rats exposed to high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered air. The PEPs had a mean particle diameter of approximately 45 nm, and a total particle number concentration ranging from 4 to 21 × 105 #/cm3. The maximum total volatile organic compound (tVOCs) concentration was 363.2 ± 162 ppb. The Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry Model (MPPD) estimated the deposited fraction of PEPs to be around 7, 6 and 21% in the head, tracheobronchial (TB) and alveolar regions, respectively. Analysis of biochemical markers in the nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (NLF, BALF) of PEPs-exposed animals showed only mild oxidative stress and inflammation. No damage was detected in the histological and chemiluminescence analysis of lung and heart tissues of PEPs-exposed animals. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as Interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-12, IL-18, MIP-1α, MIP-2, GRO/KC, and Fractalkine were found to be up-/down-regulated in NLF and BALF of the PEPs-exposed animals. Also, serum biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation, such as 8-isoprostane, 4-hydroxynonemal, and Leukotriene B4 were elevated in PEPs-exposed animals. In conclusion, following exposure to PEPs, there was modest lung injury and inflammation in the respiratory tract. Specifically, changes in expression of certain cytokines and chemokines, along with serum levels of 8-isoprostane, were the most significant adverse effects reported following exposure to PEPs.
ISSN: 2452-0748
DOI: 10.1016/j.impact.2019.100176
Rights: © Elsevier
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Type: Article
Affiliation : Harvard University T.H Chan School of Public Health 
Peking University 
Cyprus University of Technology 
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission 
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 
West Virginia University 
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