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Title: The unprecedented 2017-2018 stratospheric smoke event: Decay phase and aerosol properties observed with the EARLINET
Authors: Baars, Holger 
Ansmann, Albert 
Ohneiser, Kevin 
Haarig, Moritz 
Engelmann, Ronny 
Althausen, Dietrich 
Hanssen, Ingrid 
Gausa, Michael 
Pietruczuk, Aleksander 
Szkop, Artur 
Stachlewska, Iwona S. 
Wang, Dongxiang 
Reichardt, Jens 
Skupin, Annett 
Mattis, Ina 
Trickl, Thomas 
Vogelmann, Hannes 
Navas-Guzmán, Francisco 
Haefele, Alexander 
Acheson, Karen 
Ruth, Albert A. 
Tatarov, Boyan 
Müller, Detlef 
Hu, Qiaoyun 
Podvin, Thierry 
Goloub, Philippe 
Veselovskĭĭ, Igor A. 
Pietras, Christophe 
Haeffelin, Martial 
Fréville, Patrick 
Sicard, Michaël 
Comerón, Adolfo 
García, Alfonso Javier Fernández 
Menéndez, Francisco Molero 
Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen 
Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis 
Alados-Arboledas, Lucas 
Bortoli, Daniele 
Costa, Maria João 
Dionisi, Davide 
Liberti, Gian Luigi 
Wang, Xuan 
Sannino, Alessia 
Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos 
Boselli, Antonella 
Mona, Lucia 
D'Amico, Giuseppe 
Romano, Salvatore 
Perrone, Maria Rita 
Belegante, Livio 
Nicolae, Doina Nicoleta 
Grigorov, Ivan 
Gialitaki, Anna 
Amiridis, Vassilis 
Soupiona, Ourania 
Papayannis, Alexandros 
Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet 
Nisantzi, Argyro 
Heese, Birgit 
Hofer, Julian 
Schechner, Yoav Y. 
Wandinger, Ulla 
Pappalardo, Gelsomina 
Major Field of Science: Natural Sciences
Field Category: Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Keywords: Aerosol property;Atmospheric plume;Black carbon;Northern Hemisphere;Smoke;Soot;Stratosphere;Troposphere
Issue Date: 13-Dec-2019
Source: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2019, vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 15183-15198
Volume: 19
Issue: 23
Start page: 15183
End page: 15198
Project: ERATOSTHENES: Excellence Research Centre for Earth Surveillance and Space-Based Monitoring of the Environment 
Journal: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 
Abstract: Six months of stratospheric aerosol observations with the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) from August 2017 to January 2018 are presented. The decay phase of an unprecedented, record-breaking stratospheric perturbation caused by wildfire smoke is reported and discussed in terms of geometrical, optical, and microphysical aerosol properties. Enormous amounts of smoke were injected into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over fire areas in western Canada on 12 August 2017 during strong thunderstorm-pyrocumulonimbus activity. The stratospheric fire plumes spread over the entire Northern Hemisphere in the following weeks and months. Twenty-eight European lidar stations from northern Norway to southern Portugal and the eastern Mediterranean monitored the strong stratospheric perturbation on a continental scale. The main smoke layer (over central, western, southern, and eastern Europe) was found at heights between 15 and 20 km since September 2017 (about 2 weeks after entering the stratosphere). Thin layers of smoke were detected at heights of up to 22-23 km. The stratospheric aerosol optical thickness at 532 nm decreased from values > 0.25 on 21-23 August 2017 to 0.005-0.03 until 5-10 September and was mainly 0.003-0.004 from October to December 2017 and thus was still significantly above the stratospheric background (0.001-0.002). Stratospheric particle extinction coefficients (532 nm) were as high as 50-200 Mm-1 until the beginning of September and on the order of 1 Mm-1 (0.5- 5 Mm-1) from October 2017 until the end of January 2018. The corresponding layer mean particle mass concentration was on the order of 0.05-0.5 μg m-3 over these months. Soot particles (light-absorbing carbonaceous particles) are efficient ice-nucleating particles (INPs) at upper tropospheric (cirrus) temperatures and available to influence cirrus formation when entering the tropopause from above. We estimated INP concentrations of 50-500 L-1 until the first days in September and afterwards 5-50 L-1 until the end of the year 2017 in the lower stratosphere for typical cirrus formation temperatures of -55 ?C and an ice supersaturation level of 1.15. The measured profiles of the particle linear depolarization ratio indicated a predominance of nonspherical smoke particles. The 532 nm depolarization ratio decreased slowly with time in the main smoke layer from values of 0.15-0.25 (August-September) to values of 0.05-0.10 (October-November) and < 0.05 (December-January). The decrease of the depolarization ratio is consistent with aging of the smoke particles, growing of a coating around the solid black carbon core (aggregates), and thus change of the shape towards a spherical form. We found ascending aerosol layer features over the most southern European stations, especially over the eastern Mediterranean at 32-35? N, that ascended from heights of about 18-19 to 22-23 km from the beginning of October to the beginning of December 2017 (about 2 km per month). We discuss several transport and lifting mechanisms that may have had an impact on the found aerosol layering structures.
ISSN: 1680-7324
DOI: 10.5194/acp-19-15183-2019
Rights: © 2019 Author(s).
Type: Article
Affiliation : Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research 
Andøya Space Center 
Polish Academy of Sciences 
University of Warsaw 
Deutscher Wetterdienst 
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology 
Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss 
University College Cork 
University of Hertfordshire 
Université de Lille 
Physics Instrumentation Center of General Physics Institute 
Institut Pierre Simon Laplace 
Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique (LaMP-CNRS) 
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya 
Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT) 
Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial 
University of Granada 
Universidade de Évora 
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche 
Universitá degli Studi di Napoli Federico II 
Università del Salento 
National Institute of Research and Development for Optoelectronics 
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 
National Observatory of Athens 
National Technical University Of Athens 
Cyprus University of Technology 
Israel Institute of Technology 
Appears in Collections:Publications under the auspices of the EXCELSIOR H2020 Teaming Project/ERATOSTHENES Centre of Excellence

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