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Title: Enhancement of archaeological proxies at non-homogenous environments in Remotely Sensed Imagery
Authors: Agapiou, Athos 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Field Category: Civil Engineering
Keywords: Remote sensing archaeology;Vegetation suppression;Orthogonal equations;Archaeological proxies;Buried archaeological remains;Soil marks;Crop marks;Cyprus
Issue Date: 17-Jun-2019
Source: Sustainability (Switzerland), 2019, vol. 11, no. 12
Volume: 11
Issue: 12
Project: Synergistic Use of Optical and Radar data for cultural heritage applications (PLACES) 
Journal: Sustainability 
Abstract: Optical remote sensing has been widely used for the identification of archaeological proxies. Such proxies, known as crop or soil marks, can be detected in multispectral images due to their spectral signatures and the distinct contrast that they provide in relation to the surrounding area. The current availability of high-resolution satellite datasets has enabled researchers to provide new methodologies and algorithms that can further enhance archaeological proxies supporting thus image-interpretation. However, a critical point that remains unsolved is the detection of crop and soil marks in non-homogenous environments. In these areas, interpretation is problematic even after the application of sophisticated image enhancement analysis techniques due to the mixed landscape and spectral confusion produced from the high-resolution datasets. To overcome this problem, we propose an image-based methodology in which the vegetation is suppressed following the "forced invariance" method and then we apply a linear orthogonal transformation to the suppressed spectral bands. The new Red-Green-Blue (RGB) image corresponds to a new three-band spectral space where the three axes are linked with the crop mark, vegetation, and soil components. The study evaluates the proposed approach in the archaeological site of "Nea Paphos" in Cyprus using aWorldView-2 multispectral image aiming to overcome the limitations of the mixed environments.
ISSN: 2071-1050
DOI: 10.3390/SU11123339
Rights: © by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license
Type: Article
Affiliation : Cyprus University of Technology 
ERATOSTHENES Centre of Excellence 
Appears in Collections:Publications under the auspices of the EXCELSIOR H2020 Teaming Project/ERATOSTHENES Centre of Excellence

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