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Title: Ratings of age of acquisition of 299 words across 25 languages: Is there a cross-linguistic order of words?
Authors: Łuniewska, Magdalena 
Haman, Ewa 
Armon-Lotem, Sharon 
Etenkowski, Bartłomiej 
Southwood, Frenette 
Anđelković, Darinka 
Blom, Elma 
Boerma, Tessel 
Chiat, Shula 
de Abreu, Pascale Engel 
Gagarina, Natalia 
Gavarró, Anna 
Håkansson, Gisela 
Hickey, Tina 
de López, Kristine Jensen 
Marinis, Theodoros 
Popović, Maša 
Thordardottir, Elin 
Blažienė, Agnė 
Sánchez, Myriam Cantú 
Dabašinskienė, Ineta 
Ege, Pınar 
Ehret, Inger-Anne 
Fritsche, Nelly-Ann 
Gatt, Daniela 
Janssen, Bibi 
Kambanaros, Maria 
Kapalková, Svetlana 
Kronqvist, Bjarke 
Kunnari, Sari 
Levorato, Chiara 
Nenonen, Olga 
Fhlannchadha, Siobhán Nic 
O'Toole, Ciara 
Polišenská, Kamila 
Pomiechowska, Barbara 
Ringblom, Natalia 
Rinker, Tanja 
Roch, Maja 
Savić, Maja 
Slančová, Daniela 
Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria 
Ünal-Logacev, Özlem 
Keywords: Age of acquisition;AoA;Cross-linguistic comparison;Subjective ratings;Words
Category: Languages and Literature;Other Humanities
Field: Humanities
Issue Date: 1-Sep-2016
Source: Behavior Research Methods,2016, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 1154-1177
Journal: Behavior research methods 
Abstract: We present a new set of subjective age-of-acquisition (AoA) ratings for 299 words (158 nouns, 141 verbs) in 25 languages from five language families (Afro-Asiatic: Semitic languages; Altaic: one Turkic language: Indo-European: Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic, Slavic, and Romance languages; Niger-Congo: one Bantu language; Uralic: Finnic and Ugric languages). Adult native speakers reported the age at which they had learned each word. We present a comparison of the AoA ratings across all languages by contrasting them in pairs. This comparison shows a consistency in the orders of ratings across the 25 languages. The data were then analyzed (1) to ascertain how the demographic characteristics of the participants influenced AoA estimations and (2) to assess differences caused by the exact form of the target question (when did you learn vs. when do children learn this word); (3) to compare the ratings obtained in our study to those of previous studies; and (4) to assess the validity of our study by comparison with quasi-objective AoA norms derived from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (MB-CDI). All 299 words were judged as being acquired early (mostly before the age of 6 years). AoA ratings were associated with the raters' social or language status, but not with the raters' age or education. Parents reported words as being learned earlier, and bilinguals reported learning them later. Estimations of the age at which children learn the words revealed significantly lower ratings of AoA. Finally, comparisons with previous AoA and MB-CDI norms support the validity of the present estimations. Our AoA ratings are available for research or other purposes.
ISSN: 1554351X
DOI: 10.3758/s13428-015-0636-6
Collaboration : University of Warsaw
Cyprus University of Technology
Bar-Ilan University
Stellenbosch University
University of Belgrade
University of Utrecht
City University London
University of Luxembourg
Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Lund University
University College Dublin
Aalborg University
University of Reading
McGill University
Vytautas Magnus University
Anadolu University
University of Oslo
University of Konstanz
University of Malta
University of Amsterdam
Comenius University
University of Oulu
University of Padua
University of Helsinki
University College Cork
University of Manchester
University of London
Stockholm University
Prešov University
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Rights: © Springer Nature
Type: Article
Appears in Collections:Άρθρα/Articles

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