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Title: Metabolites and Transformation Products of Pharmaceuticals in the Aquatic Environment as Contaminants of Emerging Concern
Authors: Michael, Irene 
Vasquez Christodoulou, Marlen 
Hapeshi, Evroula 
Haddad, Tarek 
Baginska, Ewelina 
Kümmerer, Klaus 
Fatta-Kassinos, Despo 
Major Field of Science: Natural Sciences
Field Category: Chemical Sciences
Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes;Biotic and abiotic degradation;Metabolites;Pharmaceuticals;Transformation products
Issue Date: 2014
Source: Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment: Analysis, Processes, Occurrence, Effects and Risks, 2014, Pages 413-458
Abstract: Most pharmaceutical compounds undergo a structural change in the bodies of humans and animals before excretion, resulting in metabolites. After their excretion and introduction into the environment, both parent compounds and metabolites can undergo structural changes by a variety of biotic and abiotic processes. Structural transformations may also be a result of technological processes, such as effluent treatment by photolysis and advanced oxidation, which result in new chemical entities with new properties. The objective of this chapter is to present the insight and new knowledge recently obtained by studies on the fate and effects of pharmaceuticals' metabolites and their transformation products in the aquatic environment. Emphasis is on bio- and photo-transformation products formed in the presence of such compounds in the sewage treatment plants and the aquatic environment while the challenges related to their ecological risk are also discussed.
ISBN: 9781118339558
DOI: 10.1002/9781118339558.ch14
Rights: © 2014 John Wiley and Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
Type: Book Chapter
Affiliation : University of Cyprus 
Leuphana University 
Appears in Collections:Κεφάλαια βιβλίων/Book chapters

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