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Title: The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California
Authors: Clark, Jordan F. 
Washburn, Libe 
Kyriakidis, Phaedon 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Field Category: Civil Engineering
Keywords: Hydrocarbon indicators;Marine environment;Methane;Seeps;Seeps oil
Issue Date: Apr-2005
Source: Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2005, vol. 2, no.2, pp. 140-160
Volume: 22
Issue: 2
Start page: 140
End page: 160
Journal: Journal of Hydrometeorology 
Abstract: Natural hydrocarbon seepage from marine environments is an important source of methane and other gases to the atmosphere. Quantifying this flux is necessary for constraining global budgets and understanding local air pollution sources. A field of strong hydrocarbon seepage offshore of Coal Oil Point near Santa Barbara, California produces extensive areas of bursting bubbles at the sea surface. An instrumented buoy was deployed in the Coal Oil Point field to measure directly the atmospheric gas flux from three seeps of varying size and intensity. Spatial scales of continuity of the seeps, quantified by semivariograms, are small, ranging from <1 to about 9 m such that flux values on larger scales are uncorrelated. These de-correlation scales are comparable to the horizontal extents of individual bubble plumes estimated visually at the sea surface. Semivariograms for each seep are used in an ordinary Kriging procedure to interpolate flux measurements onto a regular grid and produce objective maps of the spatial distribution of flux. Spatial integrals yield total flux estimates from the three seeps of ∼7400 m3 day-1 which amount to 4-13% of the total flux from the Coal Oil Point field based on estimates from previous studies. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0264-8172
DOI: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2004.08.006
Rights: © Elsevier
Type: Article
Affiliation : Institute for Computational Earth System Science 
University of California 
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