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Title: Seawater desalination using renewable energy sources
Authors: Kalogirou, Soteris A. 
Kalogirou, Soteris A. 
Keywords: Desalination;Renewable energy;Solar collectors;Solar ponds;Photovoltaics;Wind energy;Geothermal energy;Solar stills;Phase change processes;Reverse osmosis
Issue Date: 2005
Publisher: Elsevier B. V.
Source: Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 31, no. 3, 2005, pp. 242-281
Abstract: The origin and continuation of mankind is based on water. Water is one of the most abundant resources on earth, covering three-fourths of the planet's surface. However, about 97% of the earth's water is salt water in the oceans, and a tiny 3% is fresh water. This small percentage of the earth's water—which supplies most of human and animal needs—exists in ground water, lakes and rivers. The only nearly inexhaustible sources of water are the oceans, which, however, are of high salinity. It would be feasible to address the water-shortage problem with seawater desalination; however, the separation of salts from seawater requires large amounts of energy which, when produced from fossil fuels, can cause harm to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to employ environmentally-friendly energy sources in order to desalinate seawater. After a historical introduction into desalination, this paper covers a large variety of systems used to convert seawater into fresh water suitable for human use. It also covers a variety of systems, which can be used to harness renewable energy sources; these include solar collectors, photovoltaics, solar ponds and geothermal energy. Both direct and indirect collection systems are included. The representative example of direct collection systems is the solar still. Indirect collection systems employ two sub-systems; one for the collection of renewable energy and one for desalination. For this purpose, standard renewable energy and desalination systems are most often employed. Only industrially-tested desalination systems are included in this paper and they comprise the phase change processes, which include the multistage flash, multiple effect boiling and vapour compression and membrane processes, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The paper also includes a review of various systems that use renewable energy sources for desalination. Finally, some general guidelines are given for selection of desalination and renewable energy systems and the parameters that need to be considered.
ISSN: 0360-1285
Rights: Copyright © 2005 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
Type: Article
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