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Title: The influence of large convective eddies on the surface-layer turbulence
Authors: Zilitinkevich, Sergej S. 
Hunt, J. C.R. 
Esau, I. N. 
Grachev, A. A. 
Lalas, D. P. 
Akylas, Evangelos 
Tombrou, M. 
Fairall, C. W. 
Fernando, H. J.S. 
Baklanov, A. A. 
Joffre, S. M. 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Field Category: Civil Engineering
Keywords: Convection;Heat and mass transfer;Minimum friction velocity;Semi-organized structures;Surface fluxes
Issue Date: 1-Jul-2006
Source: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Societ, Volume 132, Issue 618 A, July 2006, Pages 1423-1456
Journal: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 
Abstract: Close to the surface large coherent eddies consisting of plumes and downdraughts cause convergent winds blowing towards the plume axes, which in turn cause wind shears and generation of turbulence. This mechanism strongly enhances the convective heat/mass transfer at the surface and, in contrast to the classical formulation, implies an important role of the surface roughness, In this context we introduce the stability-dependence of the roughness length. The latter is important over very rough surfaces, when the height of the roughness elements becomes comparable with the large-eddy Monin-Obukhov length. A consistent theoretical model covering convective regimes over all types of natural surfaces, from the smooth still sea to the very rough city of Athens, is developed; it is also comprehensively validated against data from measurements at different sites and also through the convective boundary layer. Good correspondence between model results, field observations and large-eddy simulation is achieved over a wide range of surface roughness lengths and convective boundary-layer heights. © Royal Meteorological Society, 2006.
ISSN: 00359009
DOI: 10.1256/qj.05.79
Type: Article
Affiliation : University of Helsinki 
Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre 
University College London 
University of Colorado 
A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics 
National Observatory of Athens 
University of Athens 
Arizona State University 
Danish Meteorological Institute 
Finnish Meteorological Institute 
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