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Title: The Role of the Side Chain on the Performance of N-type Conjugated Polymers in Aqueous Electrolytes
Authors: Giovannitti, Alexander 
Maria, Iuliana Petruta 
Hanifi, David 
Donahue, Mary J 
Bryant, Daniel 
Barth, Katrina J 
Makdah, Beatrice E 
Savva, Achilleas 
Moia, Davide 
Zetek, Matyáš 
Barnes, Piers R F 
Reid, Obadiah G 
Inal, Sahika 
Rumbles, Garry 
Malliaras, George G 
Nelson, Jenny 
Rivnay, Jonathan 
McCulloch, Iain 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Field Category: Mechanical Engineering
Keywords: Transistors;Thin film transistors;Electrochemical transistor
Issue Date: 8-May-2018
Source: Chemistry of Materials, 2018, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 2945-2953
Volume: 30
Issue: 9
Start page: 2945
End page: 2953
Journal: Chemistry of Materials 
Abstract: We report a design strategy that allows the preparation of solution processable n-type materials from low boiling point solvents for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). The polymer backbone is based on NDI-T2 copolymers where a branched alkyl side chain is gradually exchanged for a linear ethylene glycol-based side chain. A series of random copolymers was prepared with glycol side chain percentages of 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 100 with respect to the alkyl side chains. These were characterized to study the influence of the polar side chains on interaction with aqueous electrolytes, their electrochemical redox reactions, and performance in OECTs when operated in aqueous electrolytes. We observed that glycol side chain percentages of >50% are required to achieve volumetric charging, while lower glycol chain percentages show a mixed operation with high required voltages to allow for bulk charging of the organic semiconductor. A strong dependence of the electron mobility on the fraction of glycol chains was found for copolymers based on NDI-T2, with a significant drop as alkyl side chains are replaced by glycol side chains.
ISSN: 0897-4756
DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b00321
Rights: © American Chemical Society.
Type: Article
Affiliation : Imperial College London 
Stanford University 
École Nationale Supérieure des Mines 
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology 
Northwestern University 
University of Colorado at Boulder 
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 
University of Cambridge 
Cyprus University of Technology 
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