Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ktisis.cut.ac.cy/handle/10488/14042
Title: Adherence to treatment in allergic rhinitis using mobile technology. The MASK Study
Authors: Menditto, Enrica 
Costa, Elísio 
Midão, Luis 
Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia 
Novellino, Ettore 
Bialek, Slawomir 
Briedis, Vitalis 
Mair, Alpana 
Rajabian-Soderlund, Rojin 
Arnavielhe, Sylvie 
Bedbrook, Anna 
Magnan, Antoine O. 
Mahboub, Bassam Hassan Saleh Hassan 
Maier, D. 
Majer, Ivan 
Mandajieva, E. 
Morais-Almeida, Mário A. 
Manning, Peter J. 
De Manuel-Keenoy, Esteban 
Marshall, Gailen D. 
Braido, Fulvio 
Durham, Stephen R. 
Masjedi, Mohammad Reza 
Maspero, J.F. 
Mathieu-Dupas, E. 
Matta Campos, J.J. 
Matos, A.L. 
Maurer, Marcus 
Mavale-Manuel, Sandra 
Pereira, Ana Maria 
Mayora, O. 
Medina-Avalos, M.A. 
Du Toit, George L. 
Brightling, Christopher Edward E. 
Melo-Gomes, Elisabete 
Meltzer, E.O. 
Mercier, Jacques G. 
Miculinić, Neven 
Mihǎlţan, Florin Dumitru 
Milenković, Branislava A. 
Moda, Giuliana 
Mogica-Martinez, M.D. 
Todo-Bom, Ana Maria 
Dykewicz, Mark S. 
Mohammad, Y. 
Czarlewski, Wienczyslawa 
Momas, Isabelle 
Montefort, Stephen R. 
Monti, R. 
Mora Bogado, D. 
Morato-Castro, F.F. 
Mota-Pinto, A. 
Moura Santo, P. 
Münter, L. 
El-Gamal, Yehia M. 
Muraro, A. 
Kvedariene, Violeta 
Brozek, Jan L. 
Murray, Ruth 
Naclerio, Robert M. 
Nadif, Rachel 
Nalin, Marco 
Napoli, L. 
Namazova-Baranova, Leyla Seymurovna 
Neffen, Hugo E. 
Eklund, Patrik E. 
Niedeberger, V. 
Nekam, Kristof 
Neou, Angelos 
Bucca, Caterina 
Valiulis, Arunas 
Nieto, A. 
Nogueira-Silva, L. 
Nogues, Michel 
Nyembue, Tshipukane Dieudonné 
Odzhakova, C. 
Ėmužytė, Regina 
Ohta, Ken 
Okamoto, Yoshitaka 
Okubo, Kimihiro 
Onorato, G. L. 
Buhl, Roland 
Ortega Cisneros, M. 
Bergmann, Karl Christian 
Ouedraogo, Solange 
Pali-Schöll, Isabella 
Palkonen, Susanna 
Farrell, J. 
Panzner, Petr 
Park, Hae Sim 
Papi, Alberto 
Passalacqua, Giovanni G. 
Paulino, E. 
Buonaiuto, Roland 
Pawankar, Ruby U. 
Pedersen, Soøren Erik 
Klimek, Ludger 
Pépin, J. L. 
Farsi, A. 
Persico, M. 
Phillips, J. 
Picard, Robert 
Pigearias, Bernard 
Pin, Isabelle 
Pitsios, C. 
Panaitescu, C. 
Plavec, Davor 
Pohl, Wolfgang 
Popov, T. A. 
Ferreira de Mello Jr, J. 
Mösges, Ralph 
Portejoie, Fabienne 
Potter, Paul C. 
Pozzi, A.C. 
Price, David B. 
Puy, Robert 
Pugin, B. 
Burguete Cabañas, María Teresa 
Pulido Ross, R.E. 
Przemecka, M. 
Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée E.S. 
Rabe, Klaus Friedrich 
Raciborski, Filip 
Pfaar, Oliver 
Ribeirinho, I. 
Rimmer, J. 
Rivero-Yeverino, D. 
Rizzo, J.A. 
Rizzo, M.C. 
Burte, Emilie 
Robalo-Cordeiro, Carlos 
Bocheńska-Marciniak, Małgorzata 
Ródenas Rigla, Francisco 
Rodo, X. 
Rodriguez Gonzalez, M. 
Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio 
Zuberbier, Torsten 
Rolland, Christine 
Rodrigues Valle, S. 
Román-Rodrνguez, Miguel 
Romano, Antonino 
Bush, Andrew P. 
Ferrero, J. 
Rodriguez-Zagal, E 
Rolla, G. 
Romano, M. 
Rosado-Pinto, José E. 
Rosário, Nélson Augusto 
Rottem, Menachem 
Cardona, Victoria 
Sagara, H. 
Salimäki, J. 
Sańchez-Borges, Mario 
Fink-Wagner, Antje H. 
Caballero-Fonseca, Fernán 
Sastre-Dominguez, J. 
Scadding, Glenis Kathleen 
Schunemann, H.J. 
Scichilone, Nicola 
Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter D. 
Serpa, F. S. 
Shamai, S. 
Mullol, Joaquim 
Sierra, M. 
Fiocchi, Alessandro 
Simons, F. Estelle R. 
Caillaud, Denis 
Siroux, V. 
Sisul, Juan Carlos 
Skrindo, Ingebjørg 
Solé, Dirceu 
Somekh, David 
Sondermann, M. 
Sooronbaev, Talantbek M. 
Sova, M. 
Forti, S. 
Papadopoulos, Nikos G. 
Sorensen, M. 
Annesi-Maesano, Isabella 
Sorlini, M. 
Spranger, Otto 
Stelmach, Rafael 
Stukas, R. 
Sunyer, J. 
Strozek, J. 
Szylling, A. 
Fuentes Perez, M. 
Tebyriçá, J.N. 
Thibaudon, M. 
Prokopakis, Emmanuel P 
Caimmi, Davide Paolo 
To, T. 
Todo Bom, A. 
Trama, U. 
Triggiani, Massimo 
Suppli Ulrik, C. 
Urrutia-Pereira, M. 
Gálvez-Romero, J.L. 
Valenta, Rudolf 
Valero, Antonio Luνs 
Valovirta, Erkka Juhani 
van Eerd, M. 
Calderõn, Moiśes A. 
Bewick, Michael 
Van-Ganse, Éric H. 
van Hague, M. 
VandenPlas, Olivier 
Ventura, M. T. 
Gamkrelidze, Amiran G. 
Vezzani, Giorgio 
Vasankari, Tuula M. 
Vatrella, A. 
Verissimo, M.T. 
Viart, F. 
Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira 
Viegi, Giovanni 
Ryan, Dermot P. 
Vicheva, D. 
Vontetsianos, Theodore 
Garcia-Aymerich, J. 
Wagenmann, Martin 
Walker, Samantha M. 
Wallace, D. V. 
Wang, De Yun 
Waserman, S. 
Werfel, T. 
Camuzat, Thierry 
Westman, M. 
Williams, Dennis M. 
Roller-Wirnsberger, Regina E 
García-Cobas, C.Y. 
Williams, Siân 
Wilson, Nicola M. 
Wright, John P. 
Wroczynski, P. 
Yakovliev, P. 
Yawn, Barbara P. 
Yiallouros, Panayiotis K. 
Canfora, G. 
Yorgancioglu, Arzu Arzu 
Yusuf, Osman Mohammad 
Garcia-Cruz, M.H. 
Zar, Heather J. 
Tomazic, Peter Valentin 
Zhang, Luo 
Zhong, Nanshan 
Zernotti, Mario Emilio 
Zhanat, I. 
Zidarn, Mihaela 
Zuberbier, Thorsten 
Canonica, Giorgio Walter 
Zubrinich, C. 
Bogus-Buczynska, Izabela 
Zurkuhlen, A. 
Cruz, Alvaro A 
Kuna, Piotr B. 
Samolinski, Boleslaw 
Fokkens, Wytske J 
Reitsma, Sietze 
Bosse, Isabelle 
Fontaine, Jean-François 
Laune, Daniel 
Carlsen, Kai Håkon 
Cecchi, Lorenzo 
Haahtela, Tari M.K. 
Toppila-Salmi, Sanna 
Bachert, Claus 
Hellings, Peter W 
Melén, Erik 
Wickman, Magnus 
Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten 
Eller, Esben 
O'Hehir, Robyn E. 
Cingi, Cemal 
Gemıcıoğlu, Bilun 
Carreiro-Martins, Pedro 
Gemıcıoğlu, Bilun 
Kalaycì, Ömer 
Ivancevich, Juan Carlos 
Bousquet, Jean J. 
Aberer, Werner 
Agache, Ioana O. 
Akdiş, Cezmi A. 
Akdiş, Mübeccel 
Aliberti, M. R. 
Genova, S. 
Almeida, Rute 
Carriazo, A.M. 
Amat, Flore 
Angles, Rosana 
Ansotegui, Ignacio Javier 
Arnavielle, S. 
Asayag, Estrella 
Asarnoj, A. 
Arshad, Syed Hasan 
Avolio, Francesca 
Christoff, G 
Bacci, E. 
Baiardini, Ilaria 
Carr, Warner W. 
Bárbara, Cristina 
Barbagallo, Mario 
Baroni, Ilaria 
Barreto, Bruno Acatauassú Paes 
Basagana, Xavier 
Bateman, Eric D. 
Bedolla-Barajas, Martin 
Gereda, José E. 
Beghι, Bianca 
Bel, Elisabeth H.D. 
Bennoor, Kazi Saifuddin 
Antó, Josep María 
Benson, Mikael 
Bertorello, Lorenzo 
Białoszewski, Artur Z. 
Bieber, Thomas 
Bjermer, Leif H. 
Blain, Hubert 
Gerth van Wijk, R. 
Blasi, Francesco B. 
Blua, A. 
Cartier, C. 
Casale, Thomas B. 
Castellano, G. 
Cepeda, A.M. 
Chavannes, Niels H. 
Chen, Y. 
Chiron, Raphaël 
Chivato, Tomás 
Gomez, R.M. 
Chkhartishvili, Ekaterine 
Chuchalin, A. G. 
Devillier, Philippe 
Chung, K. F. 
Ciaravolo, M.M. 
Ciceran, A. 
Ciprandi, Giorgio 
Carvalho Coehlo, A.C. 
Colas, L. 
Colgan, E. 
Gómez-Vera, J. 
Coll, J. 
Conforti, D. 
Correia De Sousa, Jaime 
De Vries, Govert 
Cortés-Grimaldo, R.M. 
Corti, F. 
Costa-Dominguez, M.C. 
Courbis, A.L. 
Cox, L. 
Crescenzo, M. 
González-Dνaz, Sandra 
Čustović, Adnan 
Dahlen, S.E. 
D'Amato, G 
Dario, C. 
Keil, Thomas 
da Silva, J. 
Dauvilliers, Y. 
Darsow, Ulf 
De Blay, Frédéric 
De Carlo, Giuseppe 
Gotua, Maia A. 
Dedeu, Tony 
de Fátima Emerson, M. 
De Martino, B. 
Motta Rubina, NP 
Deleanu, Diana 
Sheikh, Aziz 
Demoly, Pascal 
Denburg, Judah A. 
Devillier, Philippe H 
Di Capua Ercolano, S. 
Boner, Attillio Loris 
Di Carluccio, N. 
Didier, Alain P. 
Dokić, Dejan 
Dominguez-Silva, M.G. 
Douagui, Habib B. 
Dray, Gérard 
Orlando, Valentina 
Dubakiene, Ruta 
Grisle, Ineta 
De Feo, Giulia 
Guidacci, M. 
Guldemond, N.A. 
Gϋtter, Zdenĕk 
Guzmán, María Antonieta 
Hajjam, J. 
Hernández, L. 
Hourihane, J.O'B. 
Huerta Villabolos, Y .R. 
Bonini, Matteo 
Humbert, Marc 
Iaccarino, Guido 
Illario, M 
Ispayeva, Z 
Jares, Edgardo José 
Jassem, E. 
Johnston, Sebastian Lennox 
Joos, Guy F.P. 
Jung, Ki Suck 
Just, Jocelyne 
Bonini, Sergio 
Jutel, Marek 
Kaidashev, I. 
Kalyoncu, Ali Fuat 
Stellato, Cristiana 
Karjalainen, J. 
Kardas, Przemysław 
Keith, Paul Kevin 
Khaitov, Musa R. 
Khaltaev, Nikolaο G. 
Kleine-Tebbe, J. 
Bouchard, Jacques 
Kowalski, Marek Leszek 
Kuitunen, M. 
Kull, Inger 
Kupczyk, M. 
Fonseca, João Almeida 
Krzych-Fałta, E. 
Lacwik, P. 
Lauri, D. 
Lavrut, J. 
Le, L.T.T. 
Boulet, Louis Philippe 
Lessa, M. 
Levato, G. 
Li, Jing 
Lieberman, Phil L. 
Lipiec, A. 
Malva, João Oliveira O. 
Lipworth, Brian Jonathon 
Lodrup Carlsen, K. C. 
Louis, Renaud E. 
Lourenço, O. 
Bourret, Rodolphe A. 
Luna-Pech, J.A. 
Major Field of Science: Medical and Health Sciences
Field Category: Health Sciences
Keywords: Adherence;MHealth;Mobile technology;Observational study;Rhinitis;Treatment
Issue Date: Apr-2019
Source: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 2019, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 442-460
Volume: 49
Issue: 4
Start page: 442
End page: 460
Journal: Clinical and Experimental Allergy 
Abstract: Background: Mobile technology may help to better understand the adherence to treatment. MASK-rhinitis (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis) is a patient-centred ICT system. A mobile phone app (the Allergy Diary) central to MASK is available in 22 countries. Objectives: To assess the adherence to treatment in allergic rhinitis patients using the Allergy Diary App. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was carried out on all users who filled in the Allergy Diary from 1 January 2016 to 1 August 2017. Secondary adherence was assessed by using the modified Medication Possession Ratio (MPR) and the Proportion of days covered (PDC) approach. Results: A total of 12 143 users were registered. A total of 6 949 users reported at least one VAS data recording. Among them, 1 887 users reported ≥7 VAS data. About 1 195 subjects were included in the analysis of adherence. One hundred and thirty-six (11.28%) users were adherent (MPR ≥70% and PDC ≤1.25), 51 (4.23%) were partly adherent (MPR ≥70% and PDC = 1.50) and 176 (14.60%) were switchers. On the other hand, 832 (69.05%) users were non-adherent to medications (MPR <70%). Of those, the largest group was non-adherent to medications and the time interval was increased in 442 (36.68%) users. Conclusion and clinical relevance: Adherence to treatment is low. The relative efficacy of continuous vs on-demand treatment for allergic rhinitis symptoms is still a matter of debate. This study shows an approach for measuring retrospective adherence based on a mobile app. This also represents a novel approach for analysing medication-taking behaviour in a real-world setting.
ISSN: 3059-7673
DOI: 10.1111/cea.13333
Rights: © Wiley
Type: Article
Affiliation : Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy 
Lithuanian University of Health Sciences 
Academic Medical Centre 
Ain Shams University 
Ajou University 
Allergology unit, UHATEM “NIPirogov 
Allergy & Asthma Center Westend 
Allergy and Asthma Associates of Southern California 
Andalusian Agency for Healthcare Quality 
ARADyAL Spanish Research Network 
UiT The Arctic University of Norway 
University of Manchester 
University of Manitoba 
University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babes 
University of Miami Dept of Medicine 
University of Milan 
Celentano pharmacy 
University of Minho 
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia 
University of Naples Federico II 
International Primary Care Respiratory Group IPCRG 
Sotiria Hospital 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 
University of Oslo 
University of Palermo 
University of Parana 
University of Porto 
University of Salerno 
University of São Paulo Medical School 
Center for Rhinology and Allergology 
University of South Florida 
University of Southeast Bahia 
Specialist social worker 
IQ4U Consultants Ltd 
University of Southern Denmark 
University of Sydney 
University of Tennessee College of Medicine 
University of Torino & Mauriziano Hospital 
University of Toronto 
University of Turku 
University of Valencia 
University of Verona Hospital 
Center of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases 
Tampere University Hospital 
University of Wuerzburg 
Argentina Center for Allergy and Immunology 
University of Zurich 
University‐Sorbonne Paris Cité 
Unversité Montpellier 
Uppsala University 
USL Toscana Centro 
Vilnius University 
Warsaw Medical University 
WHO GARD Planning Group 
Technische Universität München 
Wroclaw Medical University 
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL) 
Iranian Anti Tobacco Association 
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pédiatrique Charles de Gaulle 
Centre Hospitalier Valenciennes 
Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Béni-Messous 
Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central 
Centro Hospitalar Sao Joao 
Centro Medico Docente la Trinidad 
Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI 
Telbios SRL 
Chairman of the Council of Municipality of Salerno 
Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin 
Charles University in Prague 
ISGlobal 
Chiba University Hospital 
Christian Albrechts University 
CHU et université d’Auvergne 
CHU Sart‐Tilman, and GIGA I3 research group 
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) 
Clinica Ricardo Palma 
Tesorera de la SLAAI 
Clinica Santa Isabel 
Cofaser 
Comprehensive Allergy Center, Berlin Institute of Health 
CRI-Clinical Research International-Ltd 
Istanbul University 
Croatian Pulmonary Society 
CUF Descobertas Hospital 
CUF-Porto Hospital and Institute 
Cyprus University of Technology 
Danish Committee for Health Education 
Bambino Gesù Children's Research Hospital Holy See 
David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre 
David Tvildiani Medical University 
DG for Health and Social Care 
Die Hautambulanz and Rothhaar study center 
Site de Référence de l'EIP on AHA 
CNR - National Research Council of Italy 
Emek Medical Center 
Erasmus University Medical Center 
Eskisehir Osmangazi University 
Euforea 
First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University 
European Academy of Paediatrics 
EFA European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Associations 
European Health Futures Forum (EHFF) 
European Regional and Local Health Association 
Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa 
Faculty of Medicine Universiti Teknologi MARA 
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine 
Farmacie Dei Golfi Group 
Federal District Base Hospital Institute 
Federal University of Bahia 
University of Mississippi Medical Center 
Federal University of Minas Gerais 
Federal University of Santa Catarina 
Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro 
Federazione Italiana Medici di MedicinaGenerale 
Federico II University Hospital 
GARD Chairman 
Georgian Association of Allergology and Clinical Immunology 
Karolinska Institutet 
Getafe University Hospital 
Ghent University Hospital 
Autonomous University of Baja California 
Global Allergy and Asthma Patient Platform 
Hacettepe University 
Hacettepe University School of Medicine 
Hallym University College of Medicine 
Hannover Medical School 
Heidelberg University 
Hietzing Hospital 
Hopital Foch 
Karolinska University Hospital 
Hôpital Gui‐de‐Chauliac Montpellier 
Hospital San Bernardo Salta 
Hospital Angeles del Carmen 
Hospital Angeles Pedregal 
Hospital City of Health and Science of Torino 
Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Dr Juan I Menchaca 
Hospital Del Mar Research Institute (IMIM) 
Hospital General Regional 1 “Dr Carlos Mc Gregor Sanchez Navarro” IMSS 
Hospital of the Hospitaller Brothers in Buda 
Hospital Quirón Bizkaia 
Hospital Regional del ISSSTE ‘Lic. López Mateos’ 
Kazakh National Medical University 
Thracian University 
King's College London 
Kronikgune 
Argentine Association of Respiratory Medicine 
KU Leuven 
KYomed INNOV 
Kyrgyzstan National Centre of Cardiology and Internal medicine 
Laboratory of Molecular immunology 
LANUA International Healthcare Consultancy 
Laval University 
Leiden University Medical Center 
Tishreen University School of Medicine 
Lithuanian University of Health Sciences 
MACVIA-France 
Maputo Central Hospital 
Argentine Federation of Otorhinolaryngology Societies 
McMaster University 
Médica Sur Clinical Foundation and Hospital 
Medical center “Research expert” 
Medical center Iskar Ltd Sofia 
Medical Consulting Czarlewski 
Medical Faculty Skopje 
Tokyo National Hospital 
Medical School Saint Antoine 
Medical University of Gdansk 
Medical University of Graz 
Medical University of Lodz 
Argentine Society of Allergy and Immunopathology 
Medical University of Vienna 
Medical University of Warsaw 
Medical University, Plovdiv 
Medicine University of Malta 
Metropolitan University Hospital 
Transilvania University of Brasov 
Monash University 
Montpellier University Hospital 
National Center for Disease Control and Public Health of Georgia 
National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital 
National Institute of Pneumology M. Nasta 
ASA ‐ Advanced Solutions Accelerator 
National University of Singapore 
Neumología y Alergología Infantil, Hospital La Fe 
Nippon Medical School 
Nova Southeastern University 
Trinidad and Clínica El Avila 
Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute Singapore 
Odense University Hospital 
Olmsted Medical Center 
Ospedale Policlino San Martino ‐University of Genoa 
Padua General University Hospital 
Peercode BV 
Association of Finnish Pharmacies 
Philipps-Universität Marburg 
Policlínica Geral do Rio de Janeiro 
Pulmonolory Research Institute FMBA 
Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy 
Rangueil-Larrey Hospital 
Rashid Hospital 
Regional hospital of ISSSTE 
Regione Liguria 
Regione Piemonte 
Regionie Puglia 
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn 
Autonomous University of Madrid 
Russian National Research Medical University named Pirogov 
Saint Louis University School of Medicine 
Umeå University 
Salud Sector sanitario de Barbastro 
Salud Sector sanitario de Barbastro 
Sarno “Martiri del Villa Malta” Hospital 
Serviço de Imunoalergologia Hospital da Luz 
Showa University School of Medicine 
Sifmed 
Social Workers Coordinator 
Sociedad Paraguaya de Alergia Asma e Inmunología 
Autonomous Province of Trento 
Sorbonne Universités 
Univ Hospitals Leuven 
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens 
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León 
Hospital Vall d’Hebron 
Biomax Informatics AG 
Universidad Católica de Córdoba 
University of Sao Paulo 
Universidade do Estado do Pará 
Universidade do Porto 
Universidade Federal da Bahia 
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro 
Universidade Federal dos Pampas 
Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore 
università di Salerno 
Hospital Zambrano Hellion Tec de Monterrey 
Universitaria San Martino 
Bon Secours Hospital 
Universitat Pompeu Fabra 
Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf 
Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg‐Universität Mainz 
Université Catholique de Louvain 
Université Claude Bernard Lyon 
Université Grenoble Alpes 
Université Joseph Fourier 
Université Paris-Saclay 
Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin 
Université Paris-Sud 
Université Versailles Saint-Quentin 
Bradford Royal Infirmary 
Université Versailles Saint-Quentin 
University CEU San Pablo 
University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases 
University College Cork 
University College London 
University Hospital ‘Sv. Ivan Rilski’ 
University Hospital Naples 
Royal Brompton Hospital 
University Hospital of Kinshasa 
University Hospital of Strasbourg 
University Hospital of Zurich 
Capital Institute of Pediatrics 
University Hospital Olomouc 
University J.J. Strossmayer 
University Montpellier 
University of Aberdeen 
University of Amsterdam 
University of Barcelona 
Imperial College London 
University of Bari Medical School 
University of Beira Interior 
University of Belgrade 
University of Bratislava 
Catholic University of Sacred Heart 
University of Cape Town 
University of Chile 
University of Coimbra 
University of Cologne 
University of Copenhagen 
Inserm U 1168 
University of Crete 
University of Crete School of Medicine 
University of Cyprus 
University of Dundee 
University of Edinburgh 
Manisa Celal Bayar University 
University of Ferrara 
University of Genoa 
University of Guadalajara 
University of Helsinki 
Institut du Thorax 
University of Leicester 
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