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Title: Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo- shifts. Part I. Analytical model
Authors: Maass-Moreno, Roberto 
Damianou, Christakis A. 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Field Category: ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY;Electrical Engineering - Electronic Engineering - Information Engineering
Keywords: Acoustics;Body Temperature;Humans;Models, Biological;Ultrasonics
Issue Date: 1-Oct-1996
Source: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1996, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 2514-2521
Volume: 100
Issue: 4
Start page: 2514
End page: 2521
Journal: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 
Abstract: Temperature changes in tissue, caused by high-intensity focused ultrasound, cause time shifts in the echoes that traverse the heated tissue. These time shifts are caused by thermally induced changes in the distribution of the velocity of sound and by thermal expansion within the tissue. Our analytical model relates these shifts to changes in temperature distribution. It is proposed that these relationships can be used as a method for the noninvasive estimation of temperature within the tissue. The model shows that the echo shifts depend mostly on changes in the mean velocity along the acoustical path of the echoes and that no explicit information about the shape of the velocity distribution is required. The effects of the tissue thermal expansion are small in comparison, but may be significant under certain conditions. The theory, as well as numerical simulations, also predicts that the time shifts have an approximately linear behavior as a function of temperature. This suggests that an empirical linear delay- temperature relationship can be determined for temperature prediction. It is also shown that, alternatively, the distribution of temperature in the tissue can be estimated from the distribution of echo delays along the acoustical path. In the proposed system, low-level pulse echoes are sampled during brief periods when the high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation is off, and thus linear acoustic behavior is assumed. The possibility of nonlinear aftereffects and other disturbances limiting this approach is discussed.
ISSN: 0001-4966
DOI: 10.1121/1.417359
Rights: © AIP Publishing LLC
Type: Article
Affiliation : Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research 
Indiana University 
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