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Title: A review of the legal framework in shallow geothermal energy in selected European countries: Need for guidelines
Authors: Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. 
Efthymiou, Loukia 
Michopoulos, Apostolos 
Mavragani, Amaryllis 
Anđelković, Aleksandar S. 
Antolini, Francesco 
Bacic, Mario 
Bajare, Diana 
Baralis, Matteo 
Bogusz, Witold 
Burlon, Sébastien 
Figueira, João 
Genç, Mustafa Serdar 
Javed, Saqib 
Jurelionis, Andrius 
Koca, Kemal 
Ryżyński, Grzegorz 
Urchueguia, Javier F. 
Žlender, Bojan 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Field Category: Environmental Engineering
Keywords: Ground source heat pump;Legislation;Permitting;Regulations;Shallow geothermal energy systems
Issue Date: Mar-2020
Source: Renewable Energy, 2020, vol. 147, pp. 2556-2571
Volume: 147
Start page: 2556
End page: 2571
Journal: Renewable Energy 
Abstract: Over the past years, the installations of Shallow Geothermal Energy (SGE) systems are increasing throughout Europe, and it is indicating that a specific and detailed legal framework is necessary. Towards this direction, this paper consists of an overview of legislation issues on SGE at European level, based on concise reviews from fourteen countries, i.e., Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey. Said reviews discuss key national legislation as well as experts’ experience in the procedure of SGE integration. Legal and technical issues are also critically discussed for all involved countries, both individually and collectively. Findings show that high diversity exists on legislation provisions as well as on regulations, standards, and institutional support amongst European countries. The latter acts as an effective barrier for the further development of the SGE market; therefore indicating the need for a common approach. Increase of awareness, need for standardization, improvement of legal framework, and administration procedures and permitting, are essential steps in moving forward and supporting the effectiveness of design, construction, maintenance, and operation of SGE systems.
ISSN: 09601481
DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2018.10.007
Rights: © Elsevier
Type: Article
Affiliation : Democritus University of Thrace 
Cyprus University of Technology 
University of Cyprus 
University of Novi Sad 
Politecnico di Torino 
University of Zagreb 
Riga Technical University 
Building Research Institute 
University of Lisbon 
Erciyes University 
Lund University 
Kaunas University of Technology 
Polish Geological Institute 
Universitat Politècnica de València 
University of Maribor 
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