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Title: Precipitation: Measurement, remote sensing, climatology and modeling
Authors: Michaelides, Silas 
Levizzani, Vincenzo 
Anagnostou, Emmanouil N. 
Bauer, Péter H. 
Lane, John E. 
Kasparis, Takis 
Major Field of Science: Natural Sciences
Field Category: Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Keywords: Precipitation;Precipitation measurement;Remote sensing;Climatology;Precipitation modeling;Data assimilation
Issue Date: Dec-2009
Source: Atmospheric Research, 2009, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 512-533
Volume: 94
Issue: 4
Start page: 512
End page: 533
Journal: Atmospheric Research 
Abstract: This review paper deals with four aspects of precipitation: measurement, remote sensing, climatology and modeling. The measurement of precipitation is summarized in terms of the instruments that count and measure drop sizes (defined as disdrometers) and the instruments that measure an average quantity proportional to the integrated volume of an ensemble of raindrops (these instruments are normally called rain gauges). Remote sensing of precipitation is accomplished with ground based radar and from satellite retrievals and these two approaches are separately discussed. The climatology of precipitation has evolved through the years from the traditional rain gauge data analyses to the more sophisticated data bases that result from a coalescence of data and information on precipitation that is available from several sources into amalgamated products. Recently, rain observations from both ground and space have been assimilated into regional and global numerical weather prediction models aiming at improved moisture analysis and better forecasts of extreme weather events. The current status and the main outstanding issues related to precipitation forecasting are discussed, providing a basic structure for research coordination aimed at the improvement of modeling, observation and data assimilation applicable to global and regional scales.
ISSN: 0169-8095
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2009.08.017
Rights: © Elsevier
Type: Article
Affiliation : Meteorological Service of Cyprus 
Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC-CNR) 
University of Connecticut 
Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Institute of Inland Waters, Anavissos 
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 
University of Central Florida 
Space Life Sciences Lab, Kennedy Space Center 
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