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Title: Characterisation of ground thermal and thermo-mechanical behaviour for shallow geothermal energy applications
Authors: Vieira, Ana 
Alberdi-Pagola, Maria 
Christodoulides, Paul 
Javed, Saqib 
Loveridge, Fleur 
Nguyen, Frederic 
Cecinato, Francesco 
Maranha, João 
Florides, Georgios A. 
Prodan, Iulia 
Van Lysebetten, Gust 
Ramalho, Elsa 
Salciarini, Diana 
Georgiev, Aleksandar 
Rosin-Paumier, Sandrine 
Popov, Rumen 
Lenart, Stanislav 
Poulsen, Søren Erbs 
Radioti, Georgia 
Major Field of Science: Engineering and Technology
Field Category: Environmental Engineering
Keywords: In situ testing;Laboratory testing;Shallow geothermal systems;Soil thermal behaviour;Thermo-mechanical behaviour
Issue Date: 3-Dec-2017
Source: Energies, 2017, vol. 10, no. 12
Volume: 10
Issue: 12
Journal: Energies 
Abstract: Increasing use of the ground as a thermal reservoir is expected in the near future. Shallow geothermal energy (SGE) systems have proved to be sustainable alternative solutions for buildings and infrastructure conditioning in many areas across the globe in the past decades. Recently novel solutions, including energy geostructures, where SGE systems are coupled with foundation heat exchangers, have also been developed. The performance of these systems is dependent on a series of factors, among which the thermal properties of the soil play a major role. The purpose of this paper is to present, in an integrated manner, the main methods and procedures to assess ground thermal properties for SGE systems and to carry out a critical review of the methods. In particular, laboratory testing through either steady-state or transient methods are discussed and a new synthesis comparing results for different techniques is presented. In situ testing including all variations of the thermal response test is presented in detail, including a first comparison between new and traditional approaches. The issue of different scales between laboratory and in situ measurements is then analysed in detail. Finally, the thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of soil is introduced and discussed. These coupled processes are important for confirming the structural integrity of energy geostructures, but routine methods for parameter determination are still lacking.
ISSN: 1996-1073
DOI: 10.3390/en10122044
Rights: © by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license
Type: Article
Affiliation : National Laboratory for Civil Engineering 
Aalborg University 
Cyprus University of Technology 
Lund University 
University of Leeds 
University of Liege 
University of Trento 
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca 
Belgian Building Research Institute 
Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia 
University of Perugia 
Technical University of Sofia 
Université de Lorraine 
Plovdiv University Paisii Hilendarski 
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute 
VIA University College 
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