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Title: Higher-order cladding mode excitation of femtosecond-laser-inscribed tilted FBGs
Authors: Ioannou, Andreas 
Theodosiou, Antreas 
Kalli, Kyriacos 
Caucheteur, Christophe 
Keywords: Femtosecond lasers;Fiber Bragg gratings;Refractive index;Cladding mode excitations;Cladding mode resonances;Differential strain;Finite element modes;Modal refractive indices;Strain sensitivity;Temperature sensitivity;Tilted fiber Bragg grating;Laser excitation
Category: Materials Engineering
Field: Engineering and Technology
Issue Date: 1-May-2018
Publisher: OSA - The Optical Society
Source: Optics Letters, 2018, Vol. 43,no. 9, pp. 2169-2172
Journal: Optics letters 
Abstract: We study the modal behavior of plane-by-plane femtosecond laser fabricated tilted fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The focus is on the differential strain and temperature sensitivities between the cladding mode resonances of an nth grating order and those of the (n - i)th orders (with i = 1 - n), which are collocated in the same wavelength range. Whereas the Bragg mode exhibits an axial strain sensitivity of 1.2 pm/µε, we experimentally show that the strain sensitivity of ultrahigh-order cladding modes is negative and at -1.99 pm/µe in the same spectral window. Using a finite element mode solver, the modal refractive index value is computed to be well below 1, thus confirming that these modes, in reality, are leaky modes.
ISSN: 0146-9592
DOI: 10.1364/OL.43.002169
Rights: © 2018 Optical Society of America.
Type: Article
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