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Title: A review on cylindrospermopsin: The global occurrence, detection, toxicity and degradation of a potent cyanotoxin
Authors: De La Cruz, Armah A. 
Hiskia, Anastasia 
Kaloudis, Triantafyllos 
Chernoff, Neil 
Hill, Donna 
Antoniou, Maria G. 
He, Xuexiang 
Loftin, Keith 
O'Shea, Kevin 
Zhao, Cen 
Pelaez, Miguel 
Han, Changseok 
Lynch, Trevor J. 
Dionysiou, Dionysios D. 
Major Field of Science: Social Sciences
Field Category: Social and Economic Geography
Keywords: Chemistry;Environmental Sciences
Issue Date: 29-Aug-2013
Source: Environmental Science Processes and Impacts, 2013, vol. 15, pp. 1979-2003
Volume: 15
Start page: 1979
End page: 2003
Journal: Environmental Science Processes and Impacts 
Abstract: Cylindrospermopsin is an important cyanobacterial toxin found in water bodies worldwide. The ever-increasing and global occurrence of massive and prolonged blooms of cylindrospermopsin-producing cyanobacteria poses a potential threat to both human and ecosystem health. Its toxicity is associated with metabolic activation and may involve mechanisms that adversely affect a wide variety of targets in an organism. Cylindrospermopsin has been shown to be cytotoxic, dermatotoxic, genotoxic, hepatotoxic in vivo, developmentally toxic, and may be carcinogenic. Human exposure may occur through drinking water, during recreational activities and by consuming foods in which the toxin may have bioaccumulated. Drinking water shortages of sufficient quality coupled with growing human pressures and climate variability and change necessitate an integrated and sustainable water management program. This review presents an overview of the importance of cylindrospermopsin, its detection, toxicity, worldwide distribution, and lastly, its chemical and biological degradation and removal by natural processes and drinking water treatment processes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
ISSN: 2050-7887
DOI: 10.1039/c3em00353a
Rights: © Royal Society of Chemistry
Type: Article
Affiliation : United States Environmental Protection Agency 
Cyprus University of Technology 
University of Cincinnati 
Geological Survey Department 
Florida International University 
University of Cyprus 
National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos 
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