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Title: Orthogonal Equations of Multi-Spectral Satellite Imagery for the Identification of Un-Excavated Archaeological Sites
Authors: Agapiou, Athos 
Alexakis, Dimitrios 
Sarris, Apostolos 
Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G. 
Keywords: Spectral enhancement;Remote sensing archaeology;Ground spectroscopy;Crop marks
Category: Environmental Engineering
Field: Engineering and Technology
Issue Date: Dec-2013
Publisher: MDPI AG
Source: Remote Sensing, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 12, pages 6560-6586
Abstract: This paper aims to introduce new linear orthogonal equations for different satellite data derived from QuickBird; IKONOS; WorldView-2; GeoEye-1, ASTER; Landsat 4 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors, in order to enhance the exposure of crop marks. The latest are of significant value for the detection of buried archaeological features using remote sensing techniques. The proposed transformations, re-projects the initial VNIR bands of the satellite image, into a new 3D coordinate system where the first component is the so called “crop mark”, the second component “vegetation” and the third component “soil”. For the purpose of this study, a large ground spectral signature database has been explored and analyzed separately for each different satellite image. The narrow band reflectance has been re-calculated using the Relative Spectral Response filters of each sensor, and then a PCA analysis was carried out. Subsequently, the first three PCA components were rotated in order to enhance the detection of crop marks. Finally, all proposed transformations have been successfully evaluated in different existing archaeological sites and some interesting crop marks have been exposed.
ISSN: 2072-4292 (Online)
DOI: 10.3390/rs5126560
Rights: © MDPI AG (Basel, Switzerland)
Type: Article
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