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|Title:||Stress evolution in magnetron sputtered Ti–Zr–N and Ti–Ta–N films studied by in situ wafer curvature: role of energetic particles||Authors:||Abadias, Gregory
Koutsokeras, Loukas E.
|Keywords:||Materials science;Magnetrons;Tin;Nitrides;Sputtering (Physics);Tanning;Titanium compounds||Issue Date:||2009||Publisher:||Elsevier||Source:||Thin solid films, 2009, Volume 518, Issue 5, Pages 1532–1537||Abstract:||Stress evolution during reactive magnetron sputtering of binary TiN, ZrN and TaN thin films as well as ternary Ti–Zr–N and Ti–Ta–N solid-solutions was studied using real-time wafer curvature measurements. The energy of the incoming particles (sputtered atoms, backscattered Ar, ions) was tuned by changing either the metal target (MTi = 47.9, MZr = 91.2 and MTa = 180.9 g/mol), the plasma conditions (effect of pressure, substrate bias or magnetron configuration) for a given target or by combining different metal targets during co-sputtering. Experimental results were discussed using the average energy of the incoming species, as calculated using Monte-Carlo simulations (SRIM code). In the early stage of growth, a rapid evolution to compressive stress states is noticed for all films. A reversal towards tensile stress is observed with increasing thickness at low energetic deposition conditions, revealing the presence of stress gradients. The tensile stress is ascribed to the development of a ‘zone T’ columnar growth with intercolumnar voids and rough surface. At higher energetic deposition conditions, the atomic peening mechanism is predominant: the stress remains largely compressive and dense films with more globular microstructure and smooth surface are obtained||URI:||http://ktisis.cut.ac.cy/handle/10488/7340||ISSN:||00406090||DOI:||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2009.07.183||Rights:||Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved||Type:||Article|
|Appears in Collections:||Άρθρα/Articles|
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