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|Title:||Characterizing Aggregated Exposure to Primary Particulate Matter: Recommended Intake Fractions for Indoor and Outdoor Sources||Authors:||Fantke, Peter
Apte, Joshua S.
Evans, John S.
Weschler, Charles J.
Stylianou, Katerina S.
Jantunen, Matti J.
McKone, Thomas E.
|Keywords:||Environmental contributor;Global disease burden;Life Cycle Initiative||Category:||Health Sciences||Field:||Medical and Health Sciences||Issue Date:||15-Aug-2017||Publisher:||American Chemical Society||Source:||Environmental Science and Technology, Volume 51, Issue 16, 2017, Pages 9089-9100||metadata.dc.doi:||http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02589||Abstract:||Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) from indoor and outdoor sources is a leading environmental contributor to global disease burden. In response, we established under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative a coupled indoor-outdoor emission-to-exposure framework to provide a set of consistent primary PM 2.5 aggregated exposure factors. We followed a matrix-based mass balance approach for quantifying exposure from indoor and ground-level urban and rural outdoor sources using an effective indoor-outdoor population intake fraction and a system of archetypes to represent different levels of spatial detail. Emission-to-exposure archetypes range from global indoor and outdoor averages, via archetypal urban and indoor settings, to 3646 real-world cities in 16 parametrized subcontinental regions. Population intake fractions from urban and rural outdoor sources are lowest in Northern regions and Oceania and highest in Southeast Asia with population-weighted means across 3646 cities and 16 subcontinental regions of, respectively, 39 ppm (95% confidence interval: 4.3-160 ppm) and 2 ppm (95% confidence interval: 0.2-6.3 ppm). Intake fractions from residential and occupational indoor sources range from 470 ppm to 62 000 ppm, mainly as a function of air exchange rate and occupancy. Indoor exposure typically contributes 80-90% to overall exposure from outdoor sources. Our framework facilitates improvements in air pollution reduction strategies and life cycle impact assessments.||URI:||http://ktisis.cut.ac.cy/handle/10488/10276||ISSN:||0013936X||Rights:||© 2017 American Chemical Society.||Type:||Article|
|Appears in Collections:||Άρθρα/Articles|
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