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Title: Characterizing Aggregated Exposure to Primary Particulate Matter: Recommended Intake Fractions for Indoor and Outdoor Sources
Authors: Fantke, Peter 
Jolliet, Olivier 
Apte, Joshua S. 
Hodas, Natasha 
Evans, John S. 
Weschler, Charles J. 
Stylianou, Katerina S. 
Jantunen, Matti J. 
McKone, Thomas E. 
Keywords: Environmental contributor;Global disease burden;Life Cycle Initiative
Category: Health Sciences
Field: Medical and Health Sciences
Issue Date: 15-Aug-2017
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Source: Environmental Science and Technology, Volume 51, Issue 16, 2017, Pages 9089-9100
Abstract: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) from indoor and outdoor sources is a leading environmental contributor to global disease burden. In response, we established under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative a coupled indoor-outdoor emission-to-exposure framework to provide a set of consistent primary PM 2.5 aggregated exposure factors. We followed a matrix-based mass balance approach for quantifying exposure from indoor and ground-level urban and rural outdoor sources using an effective indoor-outdoor population intake fraction and a system of archetypes to represent different levels of spatial detail. Emission-to-exposure archetypes range from global indoor and outdoor averages, via archetypal urban and indoor settings, to 3646 real-world cities in 16 parametrized subcontinental regions. Population intake fractions from urban and rural outdoor sources are lowest in Northern regions and Oceania and highest in Southeast Asia with population-weighted means across 3646 cities and 16 subcontinental regions of, respectively, 39 ppm (95% confidence interval: 4.3-160 ppm) and 2 ppm (95% confidence interval: 0.2-6.3 ppm). Intake fractions from residential and occupational indoor sources range from 470 ppm to 62 000 ppm, mainly as a function of air exchange rate and occupancy. Indoor exposure typically contributes 80-90% to overall exposure from outdoor sources. Our framework facilitates improvements in air pollution reduction strategies and life cycle impact assessments.
ISSN: 0013936X
Rights: © 2017 American Chemical Society.
Type: Article
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